Harivamsha MahA PurANam - ViShNu Parva
    atha viMsho.adhyAyaH
    hallIsakakrIDanam
    harivamsha in the mahAbharata - viShNuparva
    Lesson 20 - Krishna and Gopi-s Play Music
vaishampAyana uvAcha
gate shakre tataH kR^iShNaH pUjyamAno vrajAlayaiH |
govardhanadharaH shrImAnvivesha vrajameva ha ||2-20-1
vaishaMpAyana said:
(O janamejaya!) After shakra left, the auspicious kR^iShNa, lifter of govardhana, honoured by the residents of vraja, returned to vraja.
tasya vR^iddhAbhinandanti j~nAtayashcha sahoShitAH |
dhanyAH smo.anugR^ihItAH smastvadvR^ittena nayena cha ||2-20-2
Friends, acquaintances and elderly people congratulated him and said: We are satisfied and blessed by your actions and policies.
gAvo varShabhayAttIrNA vayaM tIrNA mahAbhayAt |
tava prasAdAdgovinda devatulyaparAkrama ||2-20-3
govinda! valiant like gods! Since you are pleased, the cows are freed from the fear of rain and we are free of great fears.
amAnuShANi karmANi tava pashyAma gopate |
dhAraNenAsya shailasya vidmastvAM kR^iShNa daivatam ||2-20-4
Lord of cows! We saw your superhuman actions. kR^iShNa! we are convinced that you are a god, after seeing you lifting the hill.
kastvaM bhavasi rudrANAM marutAM cha mahAbalaH |
vasUnAM vA kimarthaM cha vasudevaH pitA tava ||2-20-5
Who are you? One with immense power among the rudra-s, maruta-s and vasu-s? For what purpose did vasudeva become your father?
balaM cha bAlye krIDA cha janma chAsmAsu garhitam |
kR^iShNa divyA cha te cheShTA sha~NkitAni manAMsi naH ||2-20-6
kR^iShNa! Your power, childhood plays and actions are extraordinary. Your birth is also uncommon. Your actions are divine. In view of these, we have doubts in our minds.
kimarthaM gopaveSheNa ramase.asmAsu garhitam |
lokapAlopamashchaiva gAstvaM kiM parirakShasi ||2-20-7
Why are you staying with us as a common cow tender? Why are you, powerful like a protector of the world, protecting the cows?
devo vA dAnavo vA tvaM yakSho gandharva eva vA |
asmAkaM bAndhavo jAto yo.asi so.asi namo.astu te ||2-20-8
Are you a deva or a dAnava? Or a yakSha or a gandharva? You appear among us as a friend or relative. Whoever you are, our obeisance to you.
kenachidyadi kAryeNa vasasIha yadR^ichChayA |
vayaM tavAnugAH sarve bhavantaM sharaNaM gatAH ||2-20-9
You may be staying here for some reason, by accident. We are your followers. You are our shelter.
vaishampAyana uvAcha
gopAnAM vachanaM shrutvA kR^iShNaH padmadalekshaNaH |
pratyuvAcha smitaM kR^itvA j~nAtInsarvAnsamAgatAn ||2-20-10
vaishaMpAyana said:
(O janamejaya!) Hearing the words of gopa-s, kR^iShNa with lotus eyes, replied to all of them, smiling:
manyante mAM yathA sarve bhavanto bhImavikramam |
tathAhaM nAvamantavyaH svajAtIyo.asmi bAndhavaH ||2-20-11
All of you are considering me as a powerful person. Do not consider me in that manner. I am one among you, a relative.
yadi tvavashyaM shrotavayaM kAlaH sampratipAlyatAm |
tato bhavantaH shroShyanti mAm cha drakShyanti tattvataH ||2-20-12
If you are necessarily interested (to know me), wait for the appropriate time. Only then, you will be able to hear, visualise and understand me.
yadyayaM bhavatAM shlAghyo bAndhavo devasaprabhaH |
parij~nAnena kiM kAryaM yadyeSho.anugraho mama ||2-20-13
If you think of me as a relative and praiseworthy person to you, like a god, I consider that a blessing. What is the need to enquire about me?
evamuktAstu te gopA vasudevasutena vai |
baddhamaunA dishaH sarve bhejire pihitAnanAH ||2-20-14
When the son of vasudeva (kR^iShNa) spoke in this way, all the gopa-s became silent. Without saying anything, covering their faces, they returned to their residences.
kR^iShNastu yauvanaM dR^iShTvA nishi chandramaso vanam |
shAradIM cha nishAM ramyAM manashchakre ratiM prati ||2-20-15
kR^iShNa saw the enchanting forest on a full moon night in autumn. He decided to enjoy the beautiful night.
sa karIShA~NgarAgAsu vrajarathyAsu vIryavAN |
vR^iShANAM jAtadarpANAM yuddhAni samayojayat |2-20-16
Valiant kR^iShNa arranged a contest of bulls in the streets of vraja, covered with the dust of dried cow dung.
gopAlAMshcha balodagrAnyodhayAmAsa vIryavAn |
vane sa vIro gAshchaiva jagrAha grAhavadvibhuH ||2-20-17
Valiant kR^iShNa also arranged a contest of powerful gopa-s. The lord also contained powerful cows in the forest.
yuvatIrgopakanyAshcha rAtrau saMkAlya kAlavit |
keshorakaM mAnayanvai saha tAbhirmumoda ha | 2-20-18
kR^iShNa, who is knowledgeable about time, in his prime youth, invited the young gopi-s in the night, and enjoyed with them.
tAstasya vadanaM kAntaM kAntA gopastriyo nishi |
pibanti nayanAkShepairgAM gataM shashinaM yathA ||2-20-19
In the night, the loving gopi-s, by looking at kR^iShNa, drank his face, as beautiful as moon which has come to earth.
haritAlArdrapItena sakausheyena vAsasA |
vasAno bhadravasanaM kR^iShNaH kAntataro.abhavat ||2-20-20
kR^iShNa was wearing a yellow dress, soft as the feathers of bird haritAla. He appeared extremely beautiful wearing the auspicious dress.
Note: haritAla: a kind of pigeon of a yellowish green colour, Columba Hurriyala (Monier Williams Dictionary)
sa baddhA~NgadanirvyUhashchitrayA vanamAlayA |
shobhamano hi govindaH shobhayAmAsa tadvrajam ||2-20-21
He was wearing armlets and a beautiful garland of forest flowers. Govinda dazzled increasing the beauty of vraja.
nAma dAmodaretyevaM gopakanyAstadAbruvan |
vichitraM charitaM ghoShe dR^iShTvA tattasya bhAsvataH ||2-20-22
Then the gopi-s called him by the name dAmodara. They had seen the wonderful actions performed by him in vraja.
tAstaM payodharottu~NgairurobhiH samapIDayan |
bhrAmitAkShaishcha vadanairnirIkShante varA~NganAH ||2-20-23
They pressed him with their chests bearing large breasts. The beautiful women looked at kR^iShNa without taking their eyes from his face.
tA vAryamANAH patibhirmAtR^ibhirbhrAtR^ibhistathA |
kR^iShNaM gopA~NganA rAtrau mR^igayante ratipriyAH ||2-20-24
Even though prevented by their husbands, brothers and mothers, the gopi-s, who liked pleasure, searched for kR^iShNa in the night.
tAstu pa~NktIkR^itAH sarvA ramayanti manoramam |
gAyantyaH kR^iShNacharitaM dvandvasho gopakanyakAH ||2-20-25
All of the gopi-s stood forming a circle. All of them enjoyed together to their satisfaction. ( In the circle , kR^iShNa appeared on both sides of each gopi.) In this manner , pairs of a gopi and kR^iShNa were formed. The gopi-s sang the stories of kR^iShNa.
kR^iSNalIlAnukAriNyaH kR^iShNapraNihitekShaNAH |
kR^iShNasya gatigAminyastaruNyastA varA~NganAH ||2-20-26
Fixing their eyes on kR^iShNa, the young and beautiful gopi-s, imitated kR^iShNa's plays and walked like him.
vaneShu tAlahastAgraiH kUjayantyastathAparAH |
cherurvai charitaM tasya kR^iShNasya vrajayoShitaH ||2-20-27
Some other gopi-s of vraja moved in the forest, singing songs about kR^iShNa's keeping rhythm with their hands.
tAstasya nR^ityaM gItaM cha vilAsasmitavIkShitam |
muditAshchAnukurvantyaH krIDanti vrajayoShitaH ||2-20-28
The gopi-s moved in the forest imitating kR^iShNa's dancing, singing, laughing and looks with lots of interest and joy.
bhAvanispandamadhuraM gAyantyastA varA~NganAH |
vrajaM gatAH sukhaM cherurdAmodaraparAyaNAH ||2-20-29
Without lose of feeling, and faltering the gopi-s sang sweetly. They, depending on dAmodara, moved comfortably in vraja.
karIShapAMsudigdhA~NgyastAH kR^iShNAmanuvavrire |
ramayantyo yatha nAgaM saMpramattaM kareNavaH ||2-20-30
Dry cow dung dust was on their bodies. They surrounded kR^iShNa and gave pleasure to him like female elephants surround an intoxicated male elephant.
tamanyA bhAvavikachairnetraiH prahasitAnanAH |
pibantyatR^iptavanitAH kR^iShNaM kR^iShNamR^igekShanAH ||2-2-31
The gopi-s with smiling faces, drank the nectar emanating from kR^iShNa to their satisfaction, with their open eyes as beautiful as eyes of deers, without looking at others.
mukhamasyAbjasaMkAshaM tR^iShitA gopakanyakAH |
ratyantaragatA rAtrau pibanti rasalAlasAH ||2-20-32
In the night, the gopi-s, eager to get kR^iShNa, drank his lotus face with desire, at the end of the pleasure times.
hA heti kurvatastasya prahR^iShTAstA varA~NganAH |
jagR^ihurnissR^itAM vANIM nAmnA dAmodareritAm ||2-20-33
When kR^iShNa called them with love, the gopi-s were filled with joy. They were immensely happy to hear the sweet words spoken by dAmodara.
tAsAM grathitasImaMtA ratiM nItvA.a.akulIkR^itAH |
chAru visraMsire keshAH kuchAgre gopayoShitAm ||2-20-34
In the course of enjoyment, the marks on their foreheads were erased. Their hair became loose and hung over their breasts beautifully.
evaM sa kR^iShNo gopInAM chakravAlairalaMkR^itaH |
shAradIShu sachandrAsu nishAsu mumude sukhI ||2-20-35
In this way, kR^iShNa enjoyed the company of decorated gopi-s in circles in the moonlit nights during the autumn.
iti srimahAbhArate khileShu harivaMshe viShNuparvaNi hallIsakakrIDane viMsho.adhyAyaH
Thus this is the twentieth lesson of viShNuparva of harivaMsha, khila of shrimahAbhArata, kR^iShNa and gopi-s play music.

    nIlakaNTha commentary

asminviMshe tvathAdhyAye gopaiH kR^iShNaprashaMsanam |
gopIsaMkrIDanam vA.atha kR^itaM rAtrAvudIryate ||
Note by translator: (1)The shloka starting "a~NganAma~Ngane" is from shrIkR^iShNakarNAmR^itaM by lIlAshuka
The text with English translation by Desiraju Hanumanta Rao is available at
http://www.giirvaani.net/giirvaani/skka/skka_intro.htm
(2) The shloka starting "p^RithuM suvR^ittaM" occurs (5.51) in Kramadipika by Kesava Kasmiri. Full text is available at
http://www.sub.uni-goettingen.de/ebene_1/fiindolo/gretil/1_sanskr/4_rellit/vaisn/krdipc_u.htm
The shloka also appears in sAdhanAdIpikA available at
http://www.sub.uni-goettingen.de/ebene_1/fiindolo/gretil/1_sanskr/4_rellit/vaisn/sadhdipu.htm


Explanation of nIlakaNTha commentary along with word by word meanings of rAsakrIDa verses 2-20-25, 29, 30, 33 and 35 by Desiraju Hanumantarao

tAstu pa~NktI kR^itAH sarvA ramayanti manoramam |
gAyantyaH kR^iShNa charitaM dvandvashaH gopa kanyakAH ||2-20-25
pa~NktI kR^itAH = maNDala AkAraM = pa~Nkti rUpeNa sthitAH = on forming a row = in round shape = standing in circular rows ; dvandvashaH = in pairs = two milkmaids between whom one kR^iShNa is there; tAsu = among them; dvAbhyAM pradeshAbhyAM vartate gopaH= on either side, while a milkmaid is standing; kR^iShNo yAsAM tAH = among whom kR^iShNa is there, those milkmaids; dvandvasho gopAH tAH cha= tAH kanyakAH cha iti arthaH = on either side, milk maids are there, those girl are there - manoramaM = heart pleasin - maNDala madhyasthaM cha ramayanti iti arthaH = those milk maids are enjoying to their heart's content; yathoktaM:
"a~NganAma~NganAmantare mAdhavo
mAdhavaM mAdhavaM chAntare chA~NganA |
itthamAkalpite maNDale madhyagaH
saMjagau veNunA¬  devakInandana" ||
iti |
[iti Rigveda] shrutishcha:
"padyA vaste pururUpA vapUMShyUrdhvAH
tasthau tryaviM rerihANA
R^itasya sadma vicharAmi vidvAn
mahaddevAnAmasuratvamekam" 3.055.14 (Rigveda)
iti
3.055.14 The earth wears bodies of many forms; she abides on high cherishing her year and a half old (calf); knowing the abode of the truth (the sun), I offer worship; great and unequalled is the might of the gods. [The earth: padya in the text is explained as bhUmi, deriving it from pad, or foot, the earth, i.e. having been created from the feet of the Creator; abides on high: on the altar; year and a half old calf: tryavim sArdha saMvatsara vayasko vatsaH, a calf a year and half old; i.e, the sun of that period, or it may apply to the sun, as the protector (aviH) of the three (tri) worlds; the abode of truth: R^itasya sadman, satyabhu tasya Adityasya sthAnam, the place of the sun, who is one with the truth] [nnIlakaNTha is explaining the above hymn of Rigveda with reference to rAsa krIDa as below:
gopIbhiH abhisAriNIbhiH = milkmaids, who are following him; abhi+sartuM yogyA kR^iShNa mUrtiH = one who is fit enough to be mobbed - by his charm - that kR^iShNa' puru rUpA = bahu rUpA = vapUMShi bahUni = donning many of his prototype forms; vaste = paridhatte = he is there, surrounded by milkmaids; bahudhA tvaM gate iti arthaH = numerously milk maids approached him = rather took forward and backward steps in dancing two circles of milk maids have been formed around him; one inner and one outer circle; in each circle kR^iShNa is present between two milkmaids; as well he is standing in the centre of circles while playing flute; and milkmaids moving round with dancing steps, moved to and fro from him, from center to back vice versa.
tathA api anyA= even then; UrdhvAH= gopI saMparkaM vinA= withouit touching milkmaids; tasthau= sthitA madhye= he stood there; iti sheShaH= this is implicit meaning; kIdR^ishI = which way is it? tryaviM = trIn deshAn = pArshva dvayaM purastAt cha = on three sides, left, right and before; avati= prakAshata= he is shining forth; iti tryaviH tredha AbhUtAM= he became threefold; dR^iShTiM rerihANA = gilanti = for a sight, he is glowing forth' ukta rUpe rAsa-maNDale hi ekaikasyA gopyA ubhayataH kR^iShNa dvayaM = in this way in round dance - one milkmaid has two kR^iShnas on her either side; purastAt ekaH, sarvasAdhAraNaM = one remaining before is generally not an amazing thing; tri-dhA-bhUtAm api dR^iShTiM = but he is seen by one milkmaid manifesting himself in three forms - two on her sides, and one before her; pradesha trayastaH = that too in three different places from her viewpoint; kArtsnyena gilati, tato anyatra nApaiti iti arthaH = from everywhere he is glowing - sA mUrti = that form of kriShNa; R^itasya = dharmasya; sadma bhUtA = an emergence from dharma; tAm anu+chintya vicharAmi = thinking this way she is moving; tvat viyuktA sati; viddhi iti = kR^iShNa lIla anukArAt puMstvam Aropayanti= even if that is not there - one milkmaid is imposing maleness on the milkmaid standing by her side and following krishna lIla; Rigveda mantra explanation is over.
nIlakaNTha makes another reference:
kA api avadat = someone said somewhere; devAnAM kR^iShNa AdInAm anyeShAM vA kR^iShNena viyojayatAM asuratvaM nirdayatvaM mahat ekaM mukhyaM kasyAshchit rAsakrIDAyAM tirohite kR^iShNe idaM vAkyaM ||
bhAvanispandamadhuraM gAyantyastA varA~NganAH |
vrajaM gatAH sukhaM cherurdAmodaraparAyaNAH ||2-20-29
bhAvaH kR^iShNe premAtishayaH tasya nispandena bahirAviShkaraNena madhuraM vrajamaNDalaM gatAH prAptAH ||
karIShapAMsudigdhA~NgyastAH kR^iShNAmanuvavrire |
ramayantyo yatha nAgaM saMpramattaM kareNavaH ||2-20-30
anuvavrire= paritaH vR^itavatyaH =surrounded from all sides;
hA heti kurvatastasya prahR^iShTAstA varA~NganAH |
jagR^ihurnissR^itAM vANIM nAmnA dAmodareritAm ||2-20-33
hAheti | hA rAdhe hA chandramukhi ityAdi shabdaiH svasya viraha AturatvaM kurvataH = AviShkurvataH |
evaM sa kR^iShNo gopInAM chakravAlairalaMkR^itaH |
shAradIShu sachandrAsu nishAsu mumude sukhI || 2-20-35
chakra vAlaiH= maNDalaiH; hallIsaka krIDanam= in round dance, where women form round circles and dance; hallIsakam akalayannanta: ullIDha harshA: || lakshmi sahasranAmA-s ekasya puMso= with one male; bahubhiH strIbhiH krIDanaM = by many, women, playing with him - rather dancing with him; saiva rAsakrIDA= that alone is rAsa-kRIDa; gopInAM maNDali nR^itya bandhe = by milkmaids, group, in a dance form; hallIsakaM viduH = that is hallisakam, know it thus;
iti koshAt = so says dictionary;
tat lakShaNaM tu -
nIlakaNtha is quoting another verse -
pR^ithuM suvR^ittaM masR^iNaM vitasti-
mAtronnataM kau vinikhanya sha~NkuM |
Akramya padbhyAmitaretaraM tu
hastairbhramoyaM khalu rAsagoShTi ||

## Itranslated by K S Ramachandran, ramachandran_ksr @ yahoo.ca, May 25, ## 2008
Further proof-read by Gilles Schaufelberger, schaufel @ wanadoo.fr
If you find any errors compared to Chitrashala Press edition, send corrections to A. Harindranath harindranath_a @ yahoo.com
Translated to English by A. Purushothaman [purushothaman_avaroth @ yahoo.com] and A. Harindranath
August 29, 2009