Harivamsha MahA PurANam - ViShNu Parva
harivamsha in the mahAbharata - viShNuparva
Lesson 57 - kAlayavana's death
bhagava~nChrotumichChAmi vistareNa mahAtmanaH |
charitaM vAsudevasya yadushreShThasya dhImataH |2-57-1
O lord ( vaishampAyana)! I wish to hear the deeds of the great soul,
vAsudeva (kR^iShNa), the best among yAdava-s, with intellect, in
kimarthaM cha parityajya mathurAM madhusUdanaH |
madhyadeshasya kakudaM dhAma lakShmyAshcha kevalam ||2-57-2
Why did the slayer of madhu (kR^iShNa) abandon mathurA, which is an important
city of the middle lands and the residence of goddess lakShmi?
shR^i~ngaM pR^ithivyAH svAlakShyaM prabhUtadhanadhAnyavat |
It is enriched by wealth and grains, beautiful like a peak of earth,
with plenty of water, the best place of residence with noble people.
ayuddhenaiva dAshArhastyaktavAndvijasattama |
sa kAlayavanshachApi kR^iShNe kiM pratyapadyata ||2-57-4
O the best among brahmins! dAshArha (kR^iShNa) abandoned the place without
any war. Then what did kAlayavana do with kR^iShNa?
dvArakAM cha samAsAdya vAridurgAM janArdanaH |
kiM chakAra mahAbAhurmahAyogI mahAtapAH ||2-57-5
Reaching dvAraka, a fort in water, what did janArdana (kR^iShNa) with great
arms, great ascetic, one who performs great penance do?
kiMvIryAH kAlayavanaH kena jAtashcha vIryavAn |
yamasahyaM samAlakShya vyapayAto janArdanaH ||2-57-6
What is the power of kAlayavana? The valiant was born to whom? janArdana
(kR^iShNa) left the place considering that he (kAlayavana) is
vR^iShNInAmandhakAnAM cha gururgArgyo mahAmanAH |
brahmachArI purA bhUtvA na sma dArAnsa vindati ||2-57-7
(O janamejaya !) gArgya of great mind is the preceptor of vR^iShNi-s and
andhaka-s. He lived a chaste life and did not take a wife (did
not marry after education - see nIlakaNTha commentary)
tathA hi vartamAnaM tamUrdhvaretasamavyayam |
shyAlo.abhishastavAngArgyamapumAniti rAjani ||2-57-8
As he was living in chastity, without any decline in his attitudes, the
king's priest accused gArgya for being impotent, in the king's
so.abhishastAstadA rAjannagare tvajitaM jaye |
alipsaMstu striyaM chaiva tapastepe sudAruNam ||2-57-9
O king (janamejaya)! gArgya who was accused, who had even conquered the
unconquerable, performed a severe penance, without desiring women.
tato dvAdashavarShANi so.ayashchUrNamabhakShayat |
ArAdhayanmahAdevamachintyaM shUlapANinam ||2-57-10
He worshipped the great deva (shiva), the inconceivable, the one who holds
the lance in his hand (shiva ), for twelve years, eating iron powder.
rudrastasmai varaM prAdAtsamarthaM yudhi nigrahe |
vR^iShNInAmandhakAnAM cha sarvatejomayaM sutam ||2-57-11
Then rudra (shiva) gave him as a boon, a son, with all splendour,
capable of killing all vR^iShNi and andhaka people in battle.
tataH shushrAva taM rAjA yavanAdhipatirvaram |
putraprasavajaM daivAdaputraH putrakAmitA ||2-57-12
Then the king of yavana heard about this boon meant for the birth of a son.
The king, without a son by fate, was desiring for a son.
sa nR^ipastamupAnAyya sAntvayitvA dvijottamam |
taM ghoShamadhye yavano gopastrIShu samAsR^ijat ||2-57-13
Pleasing the best of brAhmins (sage gArgya), the (yavana) king brought him.
The yavana (king) kept him in contact with gopa women in a place of
gopAlI tvapsarAstatra gopastrIveShadhAriNI |
dhArayAmAsa gArgyasya garbhaM durdharamachyutam ||2-57-14
There was a divine woman named gopAlI in the guise of a gopa women. She
conceived gArgya's conception , which was difficult to bear, not having
mAnuShyAM gArgyabhAryAyAM niyogAchChUlapANinaH |
sa kAlayavano nAma jaj~ne shUro mahAbalaH ||2-57-15
By the order of the one holding the lance in his hand (shiva), the most
valiant, highly powerful kAlayavana was born to the wife, in the human
form, of gArghya.
aputrasyAtha rAj~nastu vavR^idhe.antaHpure shishuH |
tasminnuparate rAjansa kAlayavano nR^ipaH ||2-57-16
The child was brought up in the female apartments of the (yavana) king,
who was childless. O king (janamejaya)! When he (yavana king) died,
kAlayavana became the king.
yuddhAbhikAmo nR^patiH paryapR^ichChaddvijottamAn |
vR^iShNyandhakakulaM tasya nAradena niveditam ||2-57-17
Desiring for battle, the questioned the best of brAhmins. nArada informed
him about the races of vR^iShNi-s and andhaka-s.
j~nAtvA tu varadAnaM tannAradAnmadhusUdanaH |
upapraikShata tejasvI varddhantaM yavaneShu tam ||2-57-18
The slayer of madhu (kR^iShNa) knew about the granting of boon (by shiva)
from nArada. kR^iShNa considered the growing yavana as splendorous.
samR^iddho hi yadA rAjA yavanAnAM mahAbalaH |
tata evaM nR^ipA mlechChAH saMshrityAnuyayustadA ||2-57-19
As the highly powerful king yavana was prospering, the barbarian and foreign
kings became dependent on him and started following him.
shakAstuShArA daradAH pAradAH sR^i~NgalAH khasAH |
pahlavAH shatashashchAnye mlechChA haimavatAstathA ||2-57-20
With hundreds of barbarian and foreign kings such as shaka, tuShAra,
darada, pArada, sR^i~Ngala, khasa, pahlava and haimavata,
sa taiH parivR^ito rAjA dasyubhiH shalabhairiva |
the yavana king, surrounded by the barbarian and foreign kings, like moths,
with varieties of dresses and weapons, reached mathurA.
pR^ithivI kampayAmAsa sainyena mahatA vR^itaH ||2-57-22
There were ten thousand and ten millions of elephants, horses, asses and
camels with him. Surrounded by the great army he shook the earth.
reNunA sUryamArgaM tu samavachChAdya pArthivaH |
mUtreNa shakR^itA chaiva sainyena saMsR^ije nadIm ||2-57-23
The (yavana) king covered the sun's path (sky) with dust. A river was
created due to the urine and feces of the army.
ashvoShTrashakR^itAM rAshernissR^iteti janAdhipa |
tato.ashvashakR^idityevaM nAma nadyA babhUva ha ||2-57-24
O king of people (janamejaya!) (vaishampAyana said) Since the river was
created from the feces of horses, asses and camels, the river was named as
tatsainyaM mahadAyAdvai shrutvA vR^iShNyandhakAgraNIH |
vAsudevaH samAnAyya j~nAtInidamuvAcha ha ||2-57-25
Hearing that the great army (of yavana king) was coming, the best among
vR^iShNi-s and andhaka-s, vAsudeva (kR^iShNa) summoned the kinsmen and told
idaM samutthitaM ghoraM vR^iShNyandhakabhavaM mahat |
avadhyashchApi naH shatrurvaradAnAtpinAkinaH ||2-57-26
(kR^iShNa said) A terrible great fear has come to vRiShNi-s and andhaka-s.
Due to the boon given by the one who holds the trident (pinAka) (shiva),
this enemy cannot be killed by us.
sAmAdayo.abhyupAyAshcha vihitAstasya sarvashaH |
matto madabalAbhyAM tu yuddhameva chikIrShati ||2-57-27
We have used all means such as negotiation etc ., with him. But he, excited
due to the power of the boon, only wants to fight.
etAvAniha vAsashcha kathito nAradena me |
etAvati cha vaktavyaM sAmaiva paramaM matam ||2-57-28
nArada told me that our stay here is only up to this time. It can be only
said that negotiation is the best accepted opinion.
jarAsaMdhashcha no rAjA nityameva na mR^iShyate |
tathAnye pR^ithivIpAlA vR^iShNichakrapratApitAH ||2-57-29
king jarAsaMdha never pardons us. Other protectors of earth (kings),
envious due to the power of vR^iShNi-s are also like him.
kechitkaMsavadhAchchApi viraktAstadgatA nR^ipAH |
samAshR^itya jarAsaMdhamasmAnichChanti bAdhitum ||2-57-30
Some kings, estranged with us due to the killing of kaMsa as well,
depending on jarAsaMdha, are desiring to harm us.
bahavo j~nAtayashchaiva yadUnAM nihatA nR^ipaiH |
The kings have killed many kinsmen of yAdava-s.
varddhituM naiva shakShyAma pure.asminniti keshavaH ||2-57-31
apayAne matiM kR^itvA dUtaM tasmai sasarja ha |
(vaishampAyana said: O janamejaya !) Considering that it is not possible to
flourish in the city, keshava (kR^iShNa) decided to leave (mathurA)
and sent a messenger to him (kAlayavana).
tataH kumbhe mahAsarpaM bhinnA~njanachayopamam ||2-57-32
ghoramAshIviShaM kR^iShNaM kR^iShNaH prAkShepayattadA |
Then kR^iShNa put a terrible great black poisonous serpent, similar in
colour to lamp black, in a pot.
tatastaM mudrayitvA tu svena dUtena hArayat ||2-57-33
nidarshanArthaM govindo bhIShayAmAsa taM nR^ipam |
govinda (kR^iShNa) sealed the pot and sent it through a messenger to the
(yavana) king for seeing, to frighten the (yavana) king.
sa dUtaH kAlayavane darshayAmAsa taM ghaTam ||2-57-34
kAlasarpopamaH kR^iShNa ityuktvA bharatarShabha |
The messenger kept the pot for kAlayavana to see and said, O the best of
bharata (janamejaya), (vaishampAyana said ) that kR^iShna is comparable to
the serpent of time (kAla - death).
tatkAlayavano buddhvA trAsanaM yAdavaiH kR^itam ||2-57-35
pipIlikAnAM chaNDAnAM pUrayAmAsa taM ghaTaM |
Understanding the threat of yAdava-s, kAlayavana filled the pot completely
with violent ants.
sa sarpo bahubhistIkShNaiH sarvatastaiH pipIlikaiH ||2-57-36
bhakShyamANaH kilA~NgeShu bhasmIbhUto.abhavattadA |
The serpent bitten violently by many ants all over its body became powder
at that time.
taM mudrayitvA tu ghaTaM tathaiva yavanAdhipaH |
preShayAmAsa kR^iShNAya bAhulyamupavarNayan ||2-57-37
Sealing the pot as it is, the yavana king, sent it to kR^iShNa to describe
his abundance (of power).
vAsudevastu taM dR^iShTvA yogaM vihatamAtmanaH |
utsR^ijya mathurAmAshu dvArakAmabhijagmivAn ||2-57-38
Seeing that his strategy has failed, vAsudeva (kR^iShNa) immediately left
mathurA and went to dvAraka.
vairasyAntaM vidhitsaMstu vAsudevo mahAyashAH |
niveshya dvArakAM rAjanvR^iShNInAshvAsya chaiva ha ||2-57-39
O king janamejaya)! (vaishampAyana said) To conclude the enmity,
vAsudeva of great fame, consoled the vR^iShNi-s in dvAraka.
padAtiH puruShavyAghro bAhupraharaNastadA |
AjagAma mahAvIryo mathurAM madhusUdanaH ||2-57-40
The tiger among men, the great valiant slayer of madhu (kR^iShNa),
returned to mathurA, by walking, with only his arms as weapon.
taM dR^iShTvA niryayau hR^iShTaH sa kAlayavano ruShA |
prekShApUrvaM cha kR^iShNo.api nishchakarSha mahAbalaH ||2-57-41
Seeing him, the angry kAlayavana followed happily. The powerful kR^iShNa
continued walking as though he visualized the fight.
athAnvagachChadgovindaM jighR^ikShuryavaneshvaraH |
na chainamashakadrAjA grahItuM yogadharmiNam ||2-57-42
The lord (king) of yavana followed govinda (kR^iShNa) to catch him.
The king (yavana) was unable to catch kR^iShNa, yoked in dharma.
mAndhAtustu suto rAjA muchukundo mahAyashAH |
purA devAsure yuddhe kR^itakarmA mahAbalaH ||2-57-43
king muchukunda of great fame, the powerful son of mAndhAta, who had fought
long ago in the battle between deva-s and daitya-s,
vareNa Chandito devairnidrAmeva gR^ihItavAn |
shrAntasya tasya vAgevaM tadA prAdurabhUtkila ||2-57-44
accepted only sleep, when the deva-s offered a boon. These words were spoken
by him who was completely exhausted:
prasuptaM bodhayedyo mAM taM daheyamahaM surAH |
chakShuShA krodhadIptena evamAha punaH punaH ||2-57-45
(muchukunda said) O deva-s! I shall burn those who are waking up me
who am sleeping, with my look lighted by anger. He spoke again and again
in this manner.
evamastviti taM shakra uvAcha tridivaiH saha |
sa surairabhyanuj~nAto hyadrirAjamupAgamat ||2-57-46
shakra (indra) along with deva-s told him, let it be so. With the permission
of deva-s, the king reached the mountain.
sa parvataguhAM kAMchitpravishya shramakarshitaH |
suShvApa kAlametaM vai yAvatkR^iShNasya darshanam ||2-57-47
Extremely tired by his efforts (in war) he entered a cave in the mountain
and slept for all the time till he was seen by kR^iShNa.
tatsarvaM vAsudevAya nAradena niveditam |
varadAnaM cha devebhyastejastasya cha bhUpateH ||2-57-48
nArada told all these to vAsudeva (kR^iShNa) including the boon granted by
deva-s and the splendour of the king (muchukunda).
kR^iShNo.anugamyamAnashcha tena mlechChena shatruNA |
tAM guhAM muchukundasya pravivesha vinItavat ||2-57-49
kR^iShNa, followed by the foreigner, barbarian enemy entered the cave in
which muchukunda was (sleeping) humbly.
shiraHsthAne tu rAjarShermuchukundasya keshavaH |
saMdarshanapathaM tyaktvA tasthau buddhimatAM varaH ||2-57-50
keshava (kR^iShNa) the best among intellects stood on the side of the head
of the royal sage muchukunda, avoiding the path of his vision.
anupravishya yavano dadarsha pR^ithivIpatim |
sa taM suptaM kR^itAntAbhamAsasAda sudurmatiH ||2-57-51
The yavana (king) entering the cave following ( kR^iShNa), saw the lord
of earth (king muchukunda). The wicked soul (yavana) approached the
sleeping king who was similar to god of death.
vAsudevaM tu taM matvA ghaTTayAmAsa pArthivam |
pAdenAtmavinAshAya shalabhaH pAvakaM yathA ||2-57-52
Thinking that this was vAsudeva (kR^iShNa), he (yavana) kicked the king with
his feet, for self destruction, like moths by fire.
muchukundastu rAjarShiH pAdasparshaprabodhitaH |
nidrAchChedena chukrodha pAdasparshena tena cha ||2-57-53
The royal sage muchukunda, woken up by the kicking of the feet,
was angered by the kick of the feet which broke his sleep.
saMsmR^itya sa varaM shakrAdavaikShata tamagrataH |
sa dR^iShTamAtraH krodhena saMprajajvAla sarvashaH ||2-57-54
Remembering the boon given by shakra (indra), as the king looked straight at
him (yavana) angrily, he was completely burnt to ashes instantly.
dadAha pAvakastaM tu shuShkaM vR^ikShamivAshaniH |
kShaNena kAlayavanaM netratejovinirgataH ||2-57-55
The fire emanating from the splendour of the eye burned kAlayavana instantly
like lighting burns dry wood.
taM vAsudevaH shrImantaM chirasuptaM narAdhipam |
kR^itakAryo.abravIddhImAnidaM vachanamuttamam ||2-57-56
Then the satisfied vAsudeva of high intellect, spoke the following best
words to the auspicious king of men who was sleeping for a long time.
rAjaMshchiraprasupto.asi kathito nAradena me |
kR^itaM me sumahatkAryaM svasti te.astu vrajAmyaham ||2-57-57
(kR^iShNa said) O king! nArada told me that you had been sleeping for a
long time. You have done a good great work for me. Let there be good to
you. I am leaving.
vAsudevamupAlakShya rAjA hrasvaM pramANataH |
pariShkR^itaM yugaM mene kAlena mahatA tadA ||2-57-58
That king, seeing vAsudeva (kR^iShNa) of a short stature realized that with
a long passage of time, the era has changed.
uvAcha rAjA govindaM ko bhavAnkimihAgataH |
kashcha kAlaH prasuptasya yadi jAnAsi kathyatAm ||2-57-59
The king (muchukunda) asked govinda (kR^iShNa): Who are you? Why did you
come here? How long have I been sleeping? If you know, please tell me.
somavaMshodbhavo rAjA yayAtirnAma nAhuShaH |
tasya putro yadurjyeShThashchatvAro.anye yavIyasaH ||2-57-60
yayAti, the king of the race of the moon, is the son of nahuSha. His eldest
son is yadu. yadu has other four brothers.
yaduvaMshAtsamutpannaM vasudevAtmajaM vibho |
vAsudevaM vijAnIhi nR^ipate tvAmihAgatam ||2-57-61
O lord! I am the son of vasudeva, known as vAsudeva, born in the race of
yadu. O king! I have come here.
tretAyuge prasupto.asi vidito me.asi nAradAt |
idaM kaliyugaM viddhi kimanyatkaravANi te ||2-57-62
I have known from nArada that you slept in the era of treta. Now it is the
era of kali. What else shall I do for you?
mama shatrustvayA dagdho devadattavaro nR^ipa |
avadhyo yo mayA sa~Nkhye bhavedvarShashatairapi ||2-57-63
O king! My enemy, who cannot be killed by me even by fighting for hundred
years, who was given a boon by the deva (shiva), is burned by you.
ityuktaH sa tu kR^iShNena nirjagAma guhAmukhAt |
anvIyamAnaH kR^iShNena kR^itakAryeNa dhImatA ||2-57-64
(O janamejaya !) Being told by kR^iShNa thus, the king (muchukunda)
left the cave, followed by kR^iShNa, the intelligent, who was satisfied.
tato dadarsha pR^ithivImAvR^itAM hrasvakairnaraiH |
Then the king saw that the earth is filled with men of short stature,
with diminished enthusiasm, diminished power and diminished valour.
pareNAdhiShThitaM chaiva rAjyaM kevalamAtmanaH |2-57-65
prItyA visR^ijya govindaM pravivesha mahadvanam |
The king saw that some one else was installed (as king) in his country.
Pleased, the king left govinda (kR^iShNa) and entered the great
himavantamagAdrAjA tapase dhR^itamAnasaH ||2-57-66
tataH sa tapa AsthAya vinirmuchya kalevaram |
The king went to himavanta mountain, with his mind fixed on penance.
Performing penance and discarding his body,
Aruroha divaM rAjA karmabhiH svairjitAshubhaiH ||2-57-67
the king entered heaven due to the auspicious deeds done by him.
vAsudevo.api dharmAtmA upAyena mahAmanAH |
ghAtayitvA.a.atmanaH shatruM tatsainyaM pratyapadyata ||2-57-68
vAsudeva (kR^iShNa) of great mind, with his soul fixed in dharma, getting
his enemy killed methodically, returned to his army.
AdAyopayayau dhImAnsa sainyaM nihateshvaram ||2-57-69
kR^iShNa took the army (of the yavana king) with many chariots,
elephants, horses, shields, weapons, flagstaffs and others, whose
lord (kAlayavana) was killed.
nivedayAmAsa tato narAdhipe
tadugrasene pratipUrNamAnasaH |
janArdano dvAravatIM cha tAM purI-
mashobhayattena dhanena bhUriNA ||2-57-70
With his mind fully satisfied, kR^iShNa informed all these to king ugrasena.
janArdana (kR^iShNa) enriched the city of dvAravatI with lot of
iti shrImahAbhArate khileShu harivaMshe viShNuparvaNi
Thus this is the fifty-seventh lesson of viShNuparva, harivaMsha,
khila of mahAbhArata, kAlayavana's death
A brief complementary account of kAlayavana occurs in chapter 35 of
harivamshaparva as follows.
........................... vR^ikadevI vyajAyata || 1-35-11
kanyA trigarta rAjasya bhartA vai shaishirAyaNaH |
jij~nAsAM pauruShe chakre na chaskande.atha pauruSham || 1-35-12
kR^iShNa-Ayasa sama prakhyo varShe dvAdashame tathA |
mithyA.abhishapto gArgyastu manyunA.abhisamIritaH || 1-35-13
gopakanyAmupAdAya maithunAyopachakrame |
gopAlI tvapsarAstasya gopastrIveShadhAriNI || 1-35-14
dhArayAmAsa gArgyasya garbhaM durdharamachyutam |
mAnuShyAM gArgyabhAryAyAM niyogAchChhUlapANinaH || 1-35-15
sa kAlayavano nAma jaj~ne rAjA mahAbalaH |
vR^iShapUrvArdhakAyAstamavahanvAjino raNe || 1-35-16
aputrasya sa rAj~nastu vavR^idhe.antaHpure shishuH |
yavanasya mahArAja sa kAlayavano.abhavat || 1-35-17
sa yuddhakAmI nR^ipatiH paryapR^ichChaddvijottamAn
vR^iShNyandhakakulaM tasya nArado.akathaydvibhU || 1-35-18
akShauhiNyA tu sainyasya mathurAmabhyayAttadA |
dUtaM sampreShayAmAsa vR^iShNyandhakaniveshanam || 1-35-19
tato vR^IShNyandhakAH kR^iShNaM puraskR^itya mahAmatim |
sametA mantrayAmAsuryavanasya bhayAttadA || 1-35-20
kR^itvA cha nishchayaM sarve palAyanaparAyaNAH |
vihAya mathurAM ramyAM mAnayantaH pinAkinam || 1-35-21
kushasthalIM dvAravatIM niveshayitumIpsavaH |
For English translation by Desiraju Hanumanta Rao, see
nIlakanTha has commented as follows: