(O janamejaya !) Hearing that kR^iShNa has taken away rukmiNI,
rukmi became angry. He took a pledge in front of (king) bhIShMaka.
Without killing govinda (kR^iShNa) in battle and without bringing rukmiNI,
I will not enter kuNDina. I am saying this truth.
The valiant rukmi, mounting on a chariot ready with important weapons and
a flagstaff, started quickly, accompanied by a great army.
He was escorted by the kings of the southern route, kratha, aMshumAn,
shrutarvA, the valiant veNudAri,
the sons of bhIShMaka and other best chariot fighters and the great
chariot fighters kratha and kaishika.
They traveled for some distance. On the way, along the banks of river
narmadA, those angry men saw govinda (kR^iShNa) along with his dear
Halting the army, rukmI , proud of his power, confronted the slayer of madhu for a battle of two chariots.
sa vivyAdha chatuHShaShTyA govindaM nishitaiH sharaiH |
taM pratyavidhyatsaptatyA bANairyudhi janArdanaH ||2-60-8
He shot sixtyfour sharp arrows at govinda (kR^iShNa). Against this,
janArdana (kR^iShNa) shot seventy arrows in the battle.
patamAnasya chichCheda dhvajaM chAsya mahAbalaH |
jahAra cha shiraH kAyAtsArathestasya vIryavAn ||2-60-9
The one with great power (kR^iShNa), broke his (rukmi's) flag staff,
who was approaching fast. The valiant one ( kR^iShna) cut off the head of
his charioteer from the body.
taM kR^ichChragatamAj~nAya parivavrurjanArdanam |
dAkShiNAtyA jighAMsanto rAjAnaH sarva eva hi ||2-60-10
Seeing that rukmi is in trouble, all the kings of the southern route
surrounded janArdana (kR^iShNa) to kill him.
tamaMshumAnmahAbAhurvivyAdha dashabhiH sharaiH |
shrutarvA pa~nchabhiH kruddho vaiNudArishcha saptabhiH ||2-60-11
Then aMshumAn of great arms shot ten arrows at him (kR^iShNa). Angry
shrutarva shot five arrows and veNudAri shot seven arrows (at kR^iShNa).
tato.aMshumantaM govindo bibhedorasi vIryavAn |
nishasAda rathopasthe vyathitaH sa narAdhipaH ||2-60-12
Then valiant govinda (kR^iShNa) split the chest of aMshumAn. That king,
becoming weak, sat on the chariot.
shrutarvaNo jaghAnAshvAMshchaturbhishchaturaH sharaiH |
veNudArordhvajaM ChittvA bhujaM vivyAdha dakShiNam ||2-60-13
Shooting four arrows, kR^iShNa fell all the four horses of shrutarva.
He broke the flagstaff of veNudAri and shot arrows on his right hand.
tathaiva cha shrutarvANaM sharairvivyAdha pa~nchabhiH |
shishriye sa dhvajaM shAnto nyaShIdachcha vyathAnvitaH ||2-60-14
In the same way, kR^iShNa shot five arrows at shrutarva. Tired, the king
sat, leaning against the flagstaff, in pain.
mu~nchantaH sharavarShANi vAsudevaM tato.abhyayuH |
krathakaishikamukhyAshcha sarva eva mahArathAH ||2-60-15
kratha, kaishika and all the great chariot fighters rushed against vAsudeva
(kR^iShNa), showering a rain of arrows.
bANAirbANAMshcha chichCheda teShAM yudhi janArdanaH |
jaghAna chaiShAM saMrabdhaH patamAnashcha tA~nCharAn ||2-60-16
In the battle, janArdana split the arrows shot by them with arrows.
In the battle, he killed those who were shooting arrows with anger.
punarAnyAMshchatuHShaShTyA jaghAna nishitaiH sharaiH |
kruddhAnApatato vIrAnadrivatsa mahAbalaH ||2-60-17
Then kR^iShNa of great arms rushed forward. Shooting sixty four sharp
arrows, he killed others who were approaching with anger.
vidrutaM svabalaM dR^iShTvA rukmI krodhavashaMgataH |
pa~nchabhirnishitairbANairvivyAdhorasi keshavam ||2-60-18
Seeing that his army is defeated, rukmi became angry. He shot five sharp
arrows on the chest of keshava (kR^iShNa).
sArathiM chAsya vivyAdha sAyakairnishitaistribhiH |
AjaghAna shareNAsya dhvajaM cha nataparvaNA ||2-60-19
He shot three sharp arrows at the charioteer also. He broke the flagstaff
with arrows without tip.
keshavastvaritaM dR^iShTvA kruddho vivyAdha mArgaNaiH |
dhanushchichCheda chApyasya patamAnasya rukmiNaH ||2-60-20
Seeing the speed of his hands, keshava became angry. Shooting a bunch of
arrows, he cut down rukmi's bow.
athAnyaddhanurAdAya rukmI kR^iShNajighAMsayA |
prAdushchakAra chAnyAni divyAnyastrANi vIryavAn ||2-60-21
Then rukmi took another bow, hoping to kill kR^iShNa. Valiant rukmi
shot other divine arrows.
astrairastrANI saMvArya tasya kR^iShNo mahAbalaH |
punashchichCheda tachchApaM rathinAM cha tribhiH sharaiH ||2-60-22
kR^iShNa of great power removed his arrows with arrows. Shooting three
arrows, he again cut down that bow as well as the chariot.
sa chChinnadhanvA virathAH khaDgamAdAya charma cha |
utpapAta rathAdvIro garutmAniva vIryavAn ||2-60-23
With the bow and the chariot broken, the valiant (rukmi) taking a sword
and a shield, jumped out of the chariot, like garuda.
tasyAbhipatataH khaDgaM chichCheda yudhi keshavaH |
nArAchaishcha tribhiH kruddho bibhedainamathorasi ||2-60-24
As he jumped out, keshava (kR^iShNa) cut off his sword in the battle. With
three sharp arrows, angry keshava (kR^ishNa) split his chest.
sa papAta mahAbAhurvasudhAmanunAdayan |
visaMj~no mUrchChito rAjA vajreNeva mahAsuraH ||2-60-25
rukmi of great arms fell down with a huge noise shaking the earth. The king
lost his consciousness like a great asura struck by (indra's) vajra.
tAMshcha rAj~naH sharaiH sarvAnpunarvivyAdha mAdhavaH |
rukmiNaM patitaM dR^iShTvA vyadravanta narAdhipAH ||2-60-26
Again mAdhava (kR^iShNa) shot arrows against all the kings. Seeing rukmi
felled, the kings ran away.
vicheShTamAnaM taM bhUmau bhrAtaraM vIkShya rukmiNI |
Seeing her brother lying on earth and struggling, rukmiNI fell on vishNu's
(kR^iShNa) feet, desiring to protect her brother's life.
tAmutthApya pariShvajya sAntvayAmAsa keshavaH |
abhayaM rukmiNe dattvA prayayau svapurIM tataH ||2-60-28
keshava (kR^iShNa) lifted her up, embraced and consoled her. Giving
protection to rukmi, he went to his city.
vR^iShNayo.api jarAsaMdhaM bha~NktvA tAMshchaiva pArthivAn |
prayayurdvArakAM hR^iShTAH puraskR^itya halAyudham ||2-60-29
The vR^iShNi-s defeated jarAsaMdha as also the kings. They, keeping the one
with plough as his weapon (balarAma) in front, reached dvAraka
prayAte puNDarIkAkShe shrutarvAbhyetya sa~Ngare |
rukmiNaM rathamAropya prayayau svAM purIM prati ||2-60-30
As soon as the one whose eyes are as beautiful as lotus (kR^iShNa) left,
shrutarva came to the battlefield , took rukmi on a chariot and went
towards his city.
anAnIya svasAraM tu rukmI mAnamadAnvitaH |
hInapratij~no naichChatsa praveShTuM kuNDinaM puram ||2-60-31
Since he was unable to bring back his sister, rukmi, proud of his honour,
with his pledge unfulfilled, did not wish to enter the city of
vidarbheShu nivAsArthaM nirmame.anyatpuraM mahat |
tadbhojakaTamityeva babhUva bhuvi vishrutam ||2-60-32
In vidarbha, he made another great city to reside. That city became famous
in the world by the name bhojakaTam.
tatraujasA mahAtejA dakShiNAM dishamanvagAt |
bhIShmakaH kuNDine chaiva rAjovAsa mahAbhujaH ||2-60-33
Reigning there, rukmi with great splendour protected the southern side.
King bhIShmaka with great arms reigned in kunDina.
dvArakAM chApi saMprApte rAme vR^iShNibalAnvite |
rukmiNyAH keshavaH pANiM jagrAha vidhivatprabhuH ||2-60-34
After the arrival of (bala)rAma at dvAraka along with the vR^iShNI army,
lord keshava (kR^iShNa) took rukmiNI's hand (married) as per the
tataH saha tayA reme priyayA prIyamANayA |
sItayeva purA rAmaH paulomyeva purandaraH ||2-60-35
Then highly pleased, kR^iShNa enjoyed with his dear lady as rAma with sIta
long ago and as purandara (indra) with paulomi (shachI).
sA hi tasyAbhavajjyeShThA patnI kR^iShNasya bhAminI |
pativratA guNopetA rUpashIlaguNAnvitA ||2-60-36
She herself is the eldest wife of kR^iShNa, a beautiful woman, loyal to her
husband with all good qualities, beauty and behaviour.
tasyAmutpAdayAmAsa putrAndasha mahArathAn |
chArudeShNaM sudeShNaM cha pradyumnaM cha mahAbalam ||2-60-37
kR^iShNa had ten valiant sons with her, great chariot fighters named
chArudeShNa, sudeShNa, pradyumna with great power,
suSheNaM chAruguptaM cha chArubAhuM cha vIryavAn |
chAruvindaM suchAruM cha bhadrachAruM tathaiva cha ||2-60-38
suSheNa, chArugupta, chArubAhu the valiant, chAruvinda, suchAru,
charUM cha balinAM shreShThaM sutAM chArumatIM tathA |
dharmArthakushalAste tu kR^itAstrA yuddhadurmadAH ||2-60-39
and the best among the powerful, chAru. kR^iShNa also had a daughter
chArumatI (with rukmiNI). Experts in the principles of morality and wealth
and trained in the use of arrows, they were ready for battle.
mahiShIH sapta kalyANIstato.anyA madhusUdanaH |
upayeme mahAbAhurguNopetAH kulodbhavAH ||2-60-40
The slayer of madhu then married other seven woman of high rank. The one
with great arms married women with good qualities born in good
kAlindIM mitravindAM cha satyAM nAgnajitImapi |
sutAM jAmbavatashchApi rohiNIM kAmarUpiNIm ||2-60-41
They are kAlindI, mitravinda, satya the daughter of nagnajit, daughter of
jAmbavat and rohiNI of beautiful form,
madrarAjasutAM chApi sushIlAM shubhalochanAm |
sAtrAjitIM satyabhAmAM lakshmaNAM chAruhAsinIm ||2-60-42
the daughter of the king of madra with good behaviour and auspicious eyes,
daughter of satrAjit, satyabhAmA, lakshmaNa, who smiles beautifully
shaibyasya cha sutAM tanvIM rUpeNApsarasopamAm |
strIsahasrANi chAnyAni ShoDashAtulavikramaH ||2-60-43
and the daughter of shaibya who is equal in beauty to a divine woman.
kR^iShNa, the one who has no equal in valiancy also married other sixteen
Translator's note: According to nIlakaNTha commentary,
(1) kAlindI, (2) mitravindA,
(3) satyA, (4) jAmbavatI, (5) rohiNI (also known as bhadrA), (6) lakShmanA,
(7) satyabhAmA and (8) gAndhArI constitute the eight wives. The chief wife
rukmiNI is not counted here because she is shrI herself.
This counting however apparently causes an inconsistency with the statement
"mahiShIH sapta kalyANIstato.anyA madhusUdanaH" in shloka 2-60-40.
Gita Press edition reads "mahiShIraShTa kalyANIstado.anyA madhusUdanaH"
which is consistent with the counting.
BORI (chapter 88), as chitrashala editon, reads
"mahiShIH sapta kalyANIstato.anyA madhusUdanaH"
and do not record any variation in the number.
See the detailed note below.
upayeme hR^iShIkeshaH sarvA bheje sa tAH samam |
parArdhyavastrAbharaNAH kAmaiH sarvaiH sukhochitAH |
The lord of sages married all of them, dressed in beautiful clothes and
decorated with ornaments, in equal way with all comforts.
jaj~nire tAsu putrAshcha tasya vIrAH sahasrashaH ||2-60-44
He had many valiant sons in these wives.
shAstrArthakushalAH sarve balavanto mahArathAH the det|
yajvAnaH puNyakarmANo mahAbhAgA mahAbalAH ||2-60-45
All of them were experts in the meanings of scriptures, powerful and great
chariot fighters. All were illustrious and powerful who performed sacrifices
and other good deeds.
iti shrImahAbhArate khileShu harivaMshe viShNuparvaNi
rukmiNIharaNaM nAma ShaShTitamo.adhyAyaH
Thus this is the sixtieth lesson of viShNuparva, harivaMsha, khila of
shrImahAbhArata, rukmi defeated.
A note on kR^iShNa's wives - based on harivaMsha, viShNupurANa and
A: Shloka 2-60-40, harivaMsha (Hindi translation by JP Mishra)
Text: mahiShI saptakalyANI ...
shloka 40 - madhusUdankI sAt paTrAni thI unkobhI mahAbAhu shrIkR^iShNane
guNayukta jAnkar grahan kiyA thA |
shloka 41 - kAlindI, mitravindA, satyA nAgnajitI, jAmbavant kI kanyA
kAmarUpadhAriNI, rohiNI jisko shrutikIrtibhI kahte hai |
shloka 42 - madrarAj kI kanyA sushIlA sundar netravAlI, satrAjit ki kanyA
satyabhAmA, sundar hAsyavAlI lakShmaNA
shloka 43 - shaibyakI kanyA sUkShmasharIravAlI jiske rUpavAn koI pR^ithvI
meM nahI thI sAkShAt apsaravoM ke samAn rUpavAlI thI
Thus apart from rukmiNI, the seven wives are (1) kAlindI (2) mitravindA
(3) satyA (daughter of nagnajit) (4) daughter of jAmbavant (5) rohiNI
(daughter of shrutakIrti) (6) satyabhAma (satya, daughter of satrAjit)
and (7) lakShmaNA (daughter of king of madra).
madrarAj kI kanyA, sushIlA, sundar netravAlI, sundar hAsyavAlI appear to be
adjectives for lakShmaNA
shaibya appears to be not among the eight wives. (?)
B. The commentator of harivaMsha, gItA press edition gives the following
list ( page 556 ) of eight wives apart from rukmiNI. The text says
1. (sUryaputrI) kAlindI 2. mitravindA (rAjAdhidevI ki putrI) 3.
(ayodhyAnaresh nagnajit ki putrI) satyA 4. jAmbavatI 5. rohiNI
(bhadrA, kaikeyI, shrutakIrti ki kanyA) 6. madrarAj ki putrI lakShmaNa
7. satyabhAmA 8. rAjA shaibya ki putrI gAndhAri.
C. Malayalam translations of the shloka-s by ku~n~nikuTTan tampurAn
(he refers to other seven wives) (page 541, volume 6, bhAShAbhArataM,
DC Books (2007) are as follows:
veRiTTumezhu mahiShimAreyA madhusUdanan
guNameRuM salkkulajamArE veTTU mahAbhujan 2-60- 40
kALinditAn mitravinda nagnajilputri satyayuM
AjjAmbavatiyuM pinnekkAmarUpiNI rohiNi 2-60-41
madrarAjAvinTe makaL sushIla shubhalochana
sAtRAjitI satyabhAma charuhAsini lakShaNa 2-60-42
rUpaM koNDapsarassokkuM shaibyanTe makaLa~N~Nine
patinARAyiraM veRe strIkaLebbhUrivikraman 2-60-43
Here shaibya appears to become ninth wife.
There is a footnote given on page 541 by the editor:
The seven wives are (1) kAlindI (daughter of sun god) (2) mitravindA
(daughter of king of avantI) (3) satyA ( daughter of nagnajit,
king of kosala) (4) jAmbavatI (daughter of jAmbavAn) (5) rohiNI
(also known as bhadrA, kaikeyI, daughter of shrutakIrti
(sister of vasudeva) (6) lakShmaNA (daughter of king of madra) and
(7) satyabhAmA (daughter of satrAjit).
D. viShNupurANa pa~nchaM aMsha, 28th chapter
(page 383, gitA press, 2006) mentions seven wives other than rukmiNI:
anyAshcha bhAryAH kR^iShNasya babhUvuH sapta shobhanAH |
kAlindI mitravindA cha satyA nAgnajitI tathA || 5-28-3
devI jAmbavatI chApi rohiNI kAmarUpiNI
madrarAjasutA chAnyA sushIlA shIlamaNDanA || 5-28-4
sAtrAjitI satyabhAmA lakShmaNA chAruhAsinI |
ShoDashAsan sahasrANi strINAmanyAni chakriNaH || 5-28-5
viShNupurANa do not mention shaibya in this context. Shaibya is mentioned in
chapter 32 which indicates the names of kR^iShNa's sons.
Wilson's translation of these shloka-s (page 456) mentions
virtuous nAgnajiti (the name satya is not mentioned).
The daughter of king of madra is mentioned as mAdrI
(the Sanskrit shloka does not have this). LakShmaNA is mentioned separately.
The footnote on page 457 identifies mitravindA (daughter of kR^iShNa's
maternal aunt rAjAdhidevi) as shaibya as well. bhadrA, princess of
kekaya, is also kR^iShNa-s cousin, daughter of shrutakIrti.
In the foot note, Wilson says "Harivamsa does not name rohiNI".
This statement is not clear considering that the words rohiNI kAmarUpiNI
mentioned in viShNupurANa are almost identical with the words rohiNIM
kAmarUpiNIm found in harivaMsha.
The shlokas of viShNupurANa are almost same as the corresponding shlokas
kAlindIM mitravindAM cha satyAM nAgnajitAmapi |
sutAM jAmbavatashchApi rohiNIM kAmarUpiNIm || 2-60-41
madrarAjasutAM chApi sushIlAM shubhalocahanAm |
satrAjitIM satyabhAmaM lakShamanAM chAruhAsinIm || 2-60-42
E. kR^iShNa's wives according to bhAgavata
1. rukmiNI (three chapters in bhAgavata, 10-52, 10-53 and 10-54)
2. jAmbavatI (ityuktaH svAM duhitaraM kanyAM jAmbavatIM mudA,
bhAgavata 10-56 -32)
3. satyabhAmA (tAM satyabhAmAM bhagavAnupayeme yathAvidhi,
bhAgavata 10-56 - 44)
4. kAlindI (bhAgavata 10-58) (Note 1)
5. mitravindA (bhAgavata 10-58-31) (Note 2)
6. satyA (bhAgavata 10-58-32) (Note 3)
7. bhadrA (shrutakIrtisutAM, bhAgavata 10-58-56) (Note 4)
8. lakShmaNA (bhAgavata 10-58-57) (Note 5)
(Note 1): In bhAgavata, canto 10, chapter 58 is named aShTamahiShyudvAha .
In this chapter, kR^iShNa goes to indraprastha to see pANDava-s.
kR^iShNa stays there during the rainy season as requested by king
(yudhiShThira) ( iti vai vArShikAn mAsAn rAj~nA so.abhyarthitaH sukham,
bhAgavata 10-58-12). kR^iShNa and arjuna goes for hunting where they see
kAlindI. Prompted by his friend (kR^iShNa), arjunaA asks the best among
ladies about her details (paprachCha preShitaH sakhyA phAlgunaH
pramadottamAm, bhAgavata 10-58-18) and arjunA informs kR^iShNa
(tathAvadad guDAkesho vAsudevAya so.apt tAm, bhAgavata 10-58-23-1),
who takes the maiden in the chariot to yudhiShThira (rathamAropya tadvidvAn
dharmarAjamupAgamat bhAgavata 10- 58-23-2).
Incidentally, shlokas 24, 25, 26 and 27 of chapter 58 mentions the burning
of khANDava forest, construction of indraprastha and the
jalasthaladR^ishibhramaH of duryodhana in the assembly made by maya .
(Note 2): rAjAdhidevastanayAm mitravindAM pitR^iShvasuH |
prasahya hR^itavAn kR^iShNo rAjan rAj~nAM nyaShedhatAm ||
(Note 3): nagnajinnAma kausalya AsId rAjAtidhArmikaH |
tasya satyAbhavat kanyA devI nAgnajitI nR^ipa || (10-58-32)
(Note 4): shrutakIrtiH sutAM bhadrAmupayeme pitR^iShvasuH |
kaikeyIM bhrAtR^ibhirdattAM kR^iShNa santardanAdibhiH
(Note 5) sutAM cha madrAdhipater lakShMaNAM lakShaNairyutAm |
svayaMvarae jahAraikaH sa suparNaH sudhAmiva ||
Further in bhAgavata, canto 10, chapter 83, draupadI asks kR^iShNa's
wives to describe how kR^iShNa married them:
he vaidarbhyachyto bhadre he jAmbavati kausale |
he satyabhAme kAlindi shaibye rohiNi lakShmaNe || ( bhAgavata 10-83-6)
draupadI mentions nine names in this shloka:
1. vaidarbhI (rukmiNI)
2. bhadrA (daughter of shrutakIrti, kaikeyI)
4. kausalA (satyA)
Responding to draupadI's question, answers are given by only eight wives,
namely rukmiNI, satyabhAmA, jAmbavatI, kAlindI, mitravindA,
satyA, bhadrA and lakShMaNa.
If rohiNI and bhadrA are considered the same and mitravindA is shaibyA,
then there are eight wives including rukmiNI
Thus kR^iShNa's eight wives may be identified as
(2) jAmbavatI (daughter of jAmbavAn)
(3) satyabhAmA (daughter of satrAjit)
(4) kAlindI (daughter of sun god)
(5) mitravindA (daughter of rAjAdhidevi (vasudeva's sister) and
king of avantI, also known as shaibyA)
(6) satyA (daughter of nagnajit, king of kosala, kausalA)
(7) bhadrA (also known as rohiNI, kaikeyI, daughter of shrutakIrti,
sister of vasudeva)
(8) lakShmaNA (daughter of king of madra)
April 18, 2010
## Itranslated by K S Ramachandran, ramachandran_ksr @ yahoo.ca,
September 29, 2008
Note: sloka 18, line 1: Only rukmI, not rukmIH
Further proof-read by Gilles Schaufelberger, schaufel @ wanadoo.fr
If you find any errors compared to Chitrashala Press edition,
send corrections to A. Harindranath harindranath_a @ yahoo.com
Translated to English by A. Purushothaman [purushothaman_avaroth @
yahoo.com] and A. Harindranath
April 5, 2010 ##