Harivamsha MahA PurANam - ViShNu Parva
    athaikaShaShTitamo.adhyAyaH
    pradyumnavivAho rukmivadhashcha
    harivamsha in the mahAbharata - viShNuparva
    Lesson 61 - pradyumna's marriage and rukmi's demise
vaishampAyana uvAcha
tataH kAle vyatIte tu rukmI mahati vIryavAn |
duhituH kArayAmAsa svayaMvaramarindamaH ||2-61-1
vaishampAyana said:
O the oppressor of enemies (janamejaya)! After a long time, the great valiant rukmi arranged for the svayaMvara (selection of husband by the maiden) of his daughter.
tatrAhUtA hi rAjAno rAjaputrAshcha rukmiNA |
samAjagmurmahAvIryA nAnAdigbhyaH shriyAnvitAH ||2-61-2
As invited by rukmi, great valiant kings and sons of kings, having prosperity, arrived there, from many lands.
tatrAjagAma pradyumnaH kumArairaparairvR^itaH |
sA hi taM chakame kanyA sa cha tAM shubhalochanAm ||2-61-3
pradyumna went there surrounded by princes. The maiden desired him (pradymna). He desired her (the maiden) having auspicious eyes.
shubhA~NgI nAma vaidarbhI kAntidyutisamanvitA |
pR^ithivyAmabhavatkhyAtA rukmiNastanayA tadA ||2-61-4
The maiden of vidarbhA, named shubhA~NgI, was having beauty and splendour. At that time, the daughter of rukmi had become famous on earth.
upaviShTeShu sarveShu pArthiveShu mahAtmasu |
vaidarbhI varayAmAsa pradyumnamarisUdanam ||2-61-5
As the kings with great souls were seated together, the maiden of vidarbhA, chose pradyumna, the slayer of enemies, as her husband.
sa hi sarvAstrakushalaH siMhasaMhanano yuvA |
rUpenApratimo loke keshavasyAtmajo.abhavat ||2-61-6
That youth having a powerful body like a lion was an expert in all sciences. The son of keshava (kR^iShNa) was unequal in beauty on earth.
vayorUpaguNopetA rAjaputrI cha sAbhavat |
nArAyaNI chandrasenA jAtakAmA cha taM prati ||2-61-7
The daughter of the king (rukmi) was having qualities suitable for her age and beauty. The princess (named as) nArAyaNI and chandrasenaA, desired the youth (pradyumna).
vR^itte svayaMvare jagmU rAjAnaH svapurANi te |
upAdAya cha vaidarbhIM pradyumno dvArakAM yayau ||2-61-8
When the selection of husband by the maiden was completed, the kings returned to their own cities. pradyumna bought the maiden of vidarbhA to dvAraka.
reme saha tayA vIro damayantyA nalo yathA |
sa tasyAM janayAmAsa devagarbhopamaM sutam ||2-61-9
The valiant (pradyumna) enjoyed with her as (king) nala enjoyed with damayantI. He produced a son, comparable to the son of gods, with her.
aniruddhamiti khyAtaM karmaNApratimaM bhuvi |
dhanurvede cha vede cha nItishAstre cha pAragam ||2-61-10
He was known as aniruddha. He was unequalled in actions on earth. He was an expert in the science of archery, veda and science of political ethics.
abhavatsa yadA rAjannaniruddho vayo.anvitaH |
tadAsya rukmiNaH pautrIM shrImatIM rukmasannibhAm |
patnyarthe varayAmAsa nAmnA rukmavatIti sA ||2-61-11
O king (janamejaya)! When aniruddha became a youth of suitable age, as his wife , he chose the grand daughter of rukmi named rukmavatI, having colour of gold and prosperity.
aniruddhaM guNairdAtuM kR^itabuddhirnR^ipastataH |
prItyA hi raukmiNeyasya rukminyAshchApyupagrahAt ||2-61-12
Considering that aniruddha was with good qualities , the king (rukmi) then, due to the liking of the son of rukmi's daughter and the relation to rukmiNI,
visparddhannapi kR^iShNena vairaM tyajya mahAyashAH |
dadAmItyabravIdrAjA prItimA~njanamejaya ||2-61-13
even though he had enmity with kR^iShNa, the king of great fame, abandoned his hatred, and O janamejaya (vaishampAyana said), said that he will give (his daughter to aniruddha).
keshavaH saha rukmiNyA putraiH sa~NkarShaNena cha |
anyaishcha vR^iShNibhiH sArdhaM vidarbhAnsabalo yayau ||2-61-14
keshava (kR^iShNa), along with rukmiNI and their children, sa~NkarShaNa (balarAma) and other vR^iShNi-s arrived at vidarbhA.
saMyuktA j~nAtayashchaiva rukmiNaH suhR^idashcha ye |
AhUtA rukmiNA te.api tatrAjagmurnarAdhipAH ||2-61-15
The kinsmen who were friends of rukmi and the kings also arrived there as invited by rukmi.
shubhe tithau mahArAja nakShatre chAbhipUjite |
vivAhaH so.aniruddhasya babhUva paramotsavaH ||2-61-16
O great king (janamejaya)! (vaishampAyana said) aniruddha's marriage was conducted as a grand festival on an auspicious day on a revered star.
pANau gR^ihIte vaidarbhyAstvaniruddhena tatra vai |
vaidarbhayAdavAnAM cha babhUva paramotsavaH ||2-61-17
After aniruddha held the hand of the maiden of vidarbhA, the yAdava-s celebrated (the marriage) as a great festival at vidarbhA.
remire vR^iShNayastatra pUjyamAnA yathAmarAH |
The vR^iShNi-s, honoured like the deva-s, enjoyed there.
athAshmakAnAmadhipo vaiNudArirudAradhIH ||2-61-18
Then king of ashmaka, veNudAri with a benevolent intellect,
akShaH shrutarvA chANUraH krathashchaivAMshumAnapi |
jayatsenaH kali~NgAnAmadhipashcha mahAbalaH ||2-61-19
akSha, shrutarva, chANUra, kratha, aMshumAn, jayatsena, the powerful king of kali~Nga,
pANDyashcha nR^ipatiH shrImAnR^iShIkAdhipatistathA |
ete saMmantrya rAjAno dAkShiNAtyA maharddhayaH ||2-61-20
king pANDya and the auspicious king of R^iShika - All these kings of the southern side having great intellect,
abhigamyAbruvantsarve rukminaM rahasi prabhum |
assembled and advised lord rukmi in private.
bhavAnakSheShu kushalo vayaM chApi riraMsavaH |
priyadyUtashcha rAmo.asAvakSheShvanipuNo.api cha ||2-61-21
"You are an expert in the dice game. We also wish to play. The game of dice is dear to (bala)rAma as well even though he is not an expert in the dice game.
te bhavantaM puraskR^itya jetumichChAma taM vayam |
ityukto rochayAmAsa rukmI dyUtaM mahArathaH ||2-61-22
Keeping you (as leader) in front, we wish to challenge him." Hearing this, the great chariot fighter rukmi organized a dice game.
te shubhAM kA~nchanastambhAM kusumairbhUShitAjirAm |
sabhAmAvivishurhR^iShTAH siktAM chandanavAriNA ||2-61-23
(Note 1)
Happily, they entered the auspicious assembly, having golden pillars, decorated with flowers and sprinkled with sandal water.
tAM pravishya tataH sarve shubhrasraganulepanAH |
sauvarNeShvAsaneshvAsAMchakrire vijigIShavaH ||2-61-24
(Note 2)
Entering the assembly, all of them, wearing white garlands, with their bodies smeared with pastes, sat on the golden seats, eager for victory.
AhUto baladevastu kitavairakShakovidaiH |
bADamityabravIddhR^iShTaH saha dIvyAma paNyatAm ||2-61-25
baladeva (balarAm) who was called by the deceitful kings who were experts in the dice game, also said happily: Let us play. Offer your stake.
nikR^ityA vijigIShanto dAkShiNAtyA narAdhipAH |
maNimuktAH suvarNaM cha tatrAninyuH sahasrashaH ||2-61-26
The kings of the southern side, eager for victory by cheating, brought thousands of jewels, pearls and gold and others (as stake).
tataH prAvartata dyUtaM teShAM rativinAshanam |
kalahasyAspadaM ghoraM durmatInAM kShayAvaham ||2-61-27
(Note 3)
Then the dice game began, leading to destruction of their pleasure, the basis of terrible quarrel, leading to the decline of those with bad intellect.
niShkANAM cha sahasrANi suvarnasya dashAditaH |
rukmiNA saha saMpAte baladevo glahaM dadau ||2-61-28
In the game with rukmi, baladeva (rAma) offered ten thousand golden coins as his stake.
taM jigAya tato rukmI yatamAnaM mahAbalam |
tAvadevAparaM bhUyo baladevaM jigAya saH ||2-61-29
Then rukmi won against the highly powerful balarAma who was trying to win. Afterwards, rukmi again defeated baladeva for the same stake.
asakR^ijjIyamAnastu rukminA keshavAgrajaH |
suvarNakoTIrjagrAha glahaM tasya mahAtmanaH || 2-61-30
rukmi defeated the elder brother of keshava (kR^iShNa) several times and won ten million gold coins from the great soul as stake.
jitamityeva hR^IShTo.atha tamAhvR^itirabhAShata |
shlAghyamAnashcha chikShepA prahasanmusalAyudham ||2-61-31
Then the deceitful rukmi said: I won. Then he congratulated himself (for winning) and ridiculed the one having plough as his weapon (balarAma).
avidyo durbalaH shrImAnhiraNyamamitaM mayA |
ajeyo baladevo.ayamakShadyUte parAjitaH ||2-61-32
(rukmi said) Today, in the dice game, I have defeated the undefeatable, auspicious baladeva (balarAma) who is a novice and weak and I have won unlimited gold.
kali~NgarAjastachChrutvA prajahAsa bhR^ishaM tadA |
dantAnsandarshayanhR^IShTastatrAkruddhyaddhalAyudhaH ||2-61-33
Hearing this, the king of kali~Nga laughed happily showing his teeth. The one with plough as weapon (balarAma) became angry then.
rukmiNastadvachaH shrutvA parAjayanimittajam |
nigR^ihyamANastIkShNAbhirvAgbhirbhIShmakasUnunA ||2-61-34
Hearing the words of rukmi about the defeat, (balarama felt that) the son of king bhIShmaka, rukmi, has insuled him with severe words.
roShamAhArayAmAsa jitaroSho.api dharmavit |
saMkruddho dharShaNAM prApya rauhiNeyo mahAbalaH ||2-61-35
The one fixed in morals (balarAma) controlled his anger even though he had won. The highly powerful son of rohiNI, getting angry,
dhairyAnmanaH sannidhAya tato vachanamabravIt |
dashakoTisahasrANi glaha eko mamAparaH ||2-61-36
controlling his mind with courage, said the following words: My yet another stake is hundred thousand million (gold coins).
enaM samparigR^ihNIShva pAtayAkShAnnarAdhipa |
kR^iShNAkShA.NllohitAkShAMshcha deshe.asmiMstvadhipAMsule ||2-61-37
O king! Accepting this stake, play the dice game. Throw the dice with black and red hues in this sinful place (at this Time of wrath) (see nIlakanTha commentary).
ityevamAhvayAmAsa rukmiNaM rohiNIsutaH |
anuktvA vachanaM ki~nchidbADhamityabravItpunaH ||2-61-38
Saying this, the son of rohiNI (balarAma) called rukmi. First without saying any words as reply, he said, "let it be so" again.
akShAnrukmI tato hR^iShTaH pAtayAmAsa pArthivaH |
chAturakShe tu nirvR^itte nirjitaH sa narAdhipaH ||2-61-39
Then king rukmi threw the dice happily. In the game of dice with four marks, the king was defeated by
baladevena dharmeNa netyuvAcha tato balam |
dhairyAnmanaH samAdhAya sa na ki~nchiduvAcha ha ||2-61-40
baladeva (balarAma) in the right moral way. But the king (rukmi) did not agree. Fixing his mind with courage he (balarAma) did not say anything then.
baladevaM tato rukmI mayA jitamiti smayan |
baladevastu tachChrutvA jihmaM vAkyaM narAdhipaH ||2-61-41
Then rukmi told baladeva (balarAma), smiling: I have won. O king (janamejaya)! (vaishampAyana said) Hearing these deceitful words,
bhUyaH krodhasamAviShTo nottaraM vyAjahAra ha |
tato gaMbhIranirghoShA vAguvAchAsharIriNI ||2-61-42
(balarAma) became very angry. But he (balarAma) did not say anything in reply. Then a great loud voice was heard without any body,
baladevasya taM krodhaM vardhayantI mahAtmanaH |
satyamAha balaH shrImAndharmeNaiSha parAjitaH ||2-61-43
by way of increasing the anger of the great soul, baladeva (balarAma): Auspicious bala(rAma) has spoken the truth. He (rukmi) is defeated in the right way.
anuktvA vachanaM ki~nchitprApto bhavati karmaNA |
manasA samanuj~nAtaM tatsyAdityavagamyatAm ||2-61-44
Without saying any words, if an action is done, it should be considered as acceptable to the conscience.
iti shrutvA vachastathyamantarikShAtsubhAShitam |
sa~NkarShaNastathotthAya sauvarNenoruNA balI ||2-61-45
Hearing this moral spoken in the sky, sa~NkarShaNa (balarAma) then got up. The powerful (balarAma), with the golden heavy (board of dice)
rukmiNyA bhrAtaraM jyeShThaM nijaghAna mahItale |
vivAde kupito rAmaH kSheptAraM kila rukmiNam |
jaghAnAShTApadenaiva pramathya yadunandanaH ||2-61-46
beat rukmiNI's elder brother (rukmi) and felled him on the earth. During the argument, angry bala(rAma), the son of yadu, got up and beat rukmi, who was laughing at him, with the dice board having eight parts.
tato.apasR^itya sa~NkruddhaH kali~NgAdhipaterapi |
dantAnbabha~nja saMrambhAdunnanAda cha simhavat ||2-61-47
Then, being angry, balarAma also felled the teeth of the king of kali~Nga. With anger, balarAma roared aloud like a lion.
khaDgamudyamya tAnsarvAMstrAsayAmAsa pArthivAn |
stambhaM sabhAyAH sauvarNamutpATya balinAM varaH ||2-61-48
Brandishing his sword, balarAma terrified all the kings. The best among the powerful, (balarAma) pulled out all the pillars of the assembly.
gajendra iva taM stambhaM karShaNsa~NkarShaNastataH |
nirjagAma sabhAdvArAttrAsayAmAsa kaishikAn ||2-61-49
Then sa~NkarShaNa (balarAma), dragging the pillar, like an elephant, went out of the assembly door, terrifying the kaishika-s.
rukmiNaM nikR^itipraj~naM sa hatvA yAdavarShabhaH |
vitrAsya vidviShaH sarvAnsimhaH kShudramR^igAniva ||2-61-50
killing rukmi who desired to cheat, the best of yAdava-s terrified the enemies, like a lion terrifying mean animals.
jagAma shibiraM rAmaH svayameva janAvR^itaH |
nyavedayatsa kR^iShNAya tatra sarvaM yathAbhavat ||2-61-51
Surrounded by people, (bala)rAma went to his camp and informed kR^iShNa about all incidents which took place.
novAcha sa tadA kR^iShNaH ki~nchidrAmaM mahAdyutiH |
nigR^ihya cha tadA.a.atmAnaM kR^ichChrAdashrUNyavartayat || 2-61-52
kR^iShNa with great splendour did not say anything to (bala)rAma. Controlling his mind with difficulty, he cried with his eyes full of tears.
na hato vAsudevena yaH pUrvaM paravIrahA |
jyeShTho bhrAtAtha rukmiNyA rukmiNIsnehakAraNAt ||2-61-53
vAsudeva (kR^iShNa) did not kill rukmi, the elder brother of rukmiNI, the killer of enemies, before, due to his love for rukmiNI.
sa rAmakaramuktena nihato dyUtamaNDale |
aShTApadena balavAnrAjA vajradharopamaH ||2-61-54
The powerful king (rukmi), comparable to the holder of vajra (indra), was killed by the dice board having eight parts, released from the hand of (bala)rAma, during the dice game.
tasminhate mahAvIrye nR^ipatau bhIShmakAtmaje |
drumabhArgavatulye vai drumabhArgavashikShite ||2-61-55
As the great valiant king, the son of bhIShmaka, equal to druma and bhArgava(rAma) and trained by druma and bhArgava(rAma), was killed,
kR^itau cha yuddhakushale nityayAjini pAtite |
vR^iShNayashchAndhakAshchaiva sarve vimanaso.abhavan ||2-61-56
the one who is accomplished, one who is expert in battle, one who performs sacrifices daily was killed, all vR^iShNi-s and andhaka-s, lost their mind (became sad).
vaishampAyana uvAcha
rukmiNI cha mahAbhAgA vilapantyArtayA girA |
vilapantIM tathA dR^iShTvA sAntvayAmAsa keshavaH ||2-61-57
vaishampAyana said:
(O janamejaya!) The illustrious rukmiNI cried saying sad words. Seeing rukmiNI crying, keshava (kR^iShNa) consoled her.
etatte sarvamAkhyAtaM rukmiNo nidhanaM yathA |
vairasya cha samutthAnaM vR^iShNibhirbharatarShabha ||2-61-58
O the best among bharata (janamejaya)! (vaishampAyana continued) I have told you all about the killing of rukmi and how his enmity to vR^iShNi-s occurred.
vRiShNayo.api mahArAja dhanAnyAdAya sarvashaH |
rAmakR^iShnau samAshritya yayurdvAravatIM prati ||2-61-59
O king! vR^iShNi-s, depending on (bala)rAma and kR^iShNa, with all the wealth gained proceeded to the city of dvAravatI.
iti shrImahAbhArate khileShu harivaMshe viShNuparvaNi rukmivadho nAmaikaShaShTitamo.adhyAyaH
Thus this is the sixty-first lesson of viShNuparva, harivaMsha, Khila of shrImahAbhArata, pradyumna's marriage and rukmi's demise.

(Note 1) The assembly, the place for dice game (now regarded as a ritual !) is sanctified by sprinkling sandal water. The assembly becomes auspicious.
(Note 2) The kings wore garlands and smeared their bodies with pastes, preparing themselves for the ritual of dice game.
(Note 3) Study the adjectives used for describing the dice game. (Note 4) A detailed comparison of the description of the dice game and killing of rukmi in harivamsha, viShNupurANa and bhagavata is given in the article Killing of Rukmi

    nIlakaNTha commentary

ekaShaShTitame.adhyAye pradyumnattattanUjayoH |
vivAhaH kathyate tatra rukmiNashcha tathA vadhaH ||
iti shrImahAbhArate khileShu harivaMshe viShNuparvaNi TIkAyAmekaShaShTitamo.adhyAyaH ||
## Itranslated by K S Ramachandran, October 1, 2008
Note: (1) Sloka 18,line 2: mistake corrected - adhipo
(2) sloka 39, line 2: is there a spelling mistake here - nirjitaH sa ? Please check.
Further proof-read by Gilles Schaufelberger, schaufel @ wanadoo.fr
If you find any errors compared to Chitrashala Press edition, send corrections to A. Harindranath harindranath_a @ yahoo.com
Translated to English by A. Purushothaman [purushothaman_avaroth @ yahoo.com] and A. Harindranath
April 9, 2010 ##