Harivamsha MahA PurANam - ViShNu Parva
harivamsha in the mahAbharata - viShNuparva
Lesson 116 - story of bANAsura
bhUya eva mahAbAhoryadusiMhasya dhImataH |
karmAnyaparimeyANi shrutAni dvijasattama ||2-116-1
O the best among the twice born (vaishampAyana!) I have again heard about
the immeasurable deeds performed by the one with intellect, the one having
powerful arms, the lion of the yAdava race (kR^iShNa).
tvattaH shrutavatAM shreShTha vAsudevasya dhImataH |
yattvayA kathitaM pUrvaM bANaM prati mahAsuram ||2-116-2
O the best among those who make others hear! You mentioned about the deed
of the one with intellect, the son of vasudeva (kR^iShNa) regarding the great
tadahaM shrotumichChAmi vistareNa tapodhana |
kathaM cha devadevasya putratvamasuro gataH ||2-116-3
O the one with the wealth of penance (vaishampAyana)! I wish to hear about
that deed in detail. How did the demon become the son of the lord of lords,
yo.abhiguptaH svayaM brahma~nCha~NkareNa mahAtmanA |
sahavAsaM gatenaiva sagaNena guhena tu ||2-116-4
Brahman! How is it that he was protected by the great soul, sha~Nkara
himself, together with guha (subrahmaNya) accompanied by
the gaNa-s who were living with him?
balerbalavataH putro jyeShTho bhrAtR^ishatasya yaH |
vR^ito bAhusahasreNa divyAstrashatadhAriNA ||2-116-5
How was that the eldest of the one hundred sons of the powerful bali,
the one with thousand arms carrying hundreds of divine weapons,
asa~Nkhyaishcha mahAkAyairmahAbalashatairvR^itaH |
vAsudevena sa kathaM bANaH sa~Nkhye parAjitaH ||2-116-6
the one who is surrounded by innumerable soldiers with great bodies in
hundreds, bANa, was defeated by the son of vasudeva
(kR^iShNa) in battle?
saMrabdhashchaiva yuddhArthI jIvanmuktaH kathaM cha saH |
The one who is angry as well as the one who desires battle, how was he
shR^iNuShvAvahito rAjankR^iShNasyAmitatejasaH ||2-116-7
manuShyaloke bANena yathAbhUdvigraho mahAn |
O king (janamejaya)! Listen carefully about the great terrible battle,
which kR^iShNa of immeasurable splendor had with bANa in the human world.
vAsudevena yatrAsau rudraskandasahAyavAn ||2-116-8
baliputro raNashlAghI jitvA jIvanvisarjitaH |
In that battle, the son of vasudeva (kR^iShNa) conquered and released alive,
the son of bali (bAna) who praises battle and who was assisted by rudra
(shiva) and skanda (subrahmaNya).
tathA chAsya varo dattaH sha~NkareNa mahAtmanA ||2-116-9
nityaM sAMnidhyatAM chaiva gANapatyaM tathAkShayam |
The great soul sha~Nkara (shiva) had given him a boon of his (shiva's)
eternal presence as also un-declining lordship of gaNa-s.
yathA bANasya tadyuddhaM jIvanmukto yathA cha saH ||2-116-10
yathA cha devadevasya putratvaM so.asuro gataH |
The battle with bANa and how bAna was released alive and how the demon
(bANa) became the son of the lord of lords,
yadarthaM cha mahadyuddhaM tatsarvamakhilam shR^iNu ||2-116-11
for what purpose the great battle took place - Hear all this fully.
dR^iShTvA tataH kumArasya krIDatashcha mahAtmanaH |
baliputro mahAvIryo vismayaM paramaM gataH ||2-116-12
The great, valiant son of bali (bANa), seeing the great soul kumAra
(skanda) playing (worshipping), wondered the most.
tasyA buddhiH samutpannA tapashchartuM suduShkaram |
rudrasyArAdhanArthAya devasya syAM yathA sutaH ||2-116-13
Then a thought occurred to him to perform a difficult penance of
worshipping rudra (shiva) so that he (bANa) will become his
tato.aglapayadAtmAnaM tapasA shlAghate cha saH |
devashcha paramaM toShaM jagAma cha sahomayA ||2-116-14
Then he weakened his body by doing penance by which he was praised.
The lord (shiva) became highly pleased along with umA.
nIlakaNThaH parAM prItiM gatvA chAsuramabravIt |
varaM varaya bhadraM te yatte manasi vartate ||2-116-15
The lord with blue neck was highly pleased and told the demon: Let there be
good to you. Accept a boon which you have in mind.
atha bANo.abravIdvAkyaM devadevaM maheshvaram |
devyAH putratvamichChAmi tvayA dattaM trilochana ||2-116-16
Then bANa spoke the following words to the lord of lords, the great god:
O the one with three eyes! By your boon, I wish to become the son of the
sha~Nkarastu tathetyuktvA rudrANImidamabravIt |
kanIyAnkArtikeyasya putro.ayaM pratigR^ihyatAm ||2-116-17
sha~Nkara (shiva) said: Let it be and spoke as follows to rudrANi (umA):
Accept him as the younger brother of kArtikeya (subrahmaNya), as your son.
yatrotthito mahAsenaH so.agnijo rudhire pure |
tatroddeshe puraM chAsya bhaviShyati na saMshayaH ||2-116-18
The city of blood, where the one with great army (kArtikeya) was born in
fire, that land, that city will become his city. There is no doubt.
nAmnA tachChoNitapuraM bhaviShyati purottamam |
mayAbhiguptaM shrImantaM na kashchitprasahiShyati ||2-116-19
That city, the best among cities, will become famous in the world as the
city of blood (shoNitapuraM), protected by me. No one will be able to attack
tataH sa nivasanbANaH pure shoNitasAhvaye |
rAjyaM prashAsate nityaM kShobhayansarvadevatAH ||2-116-20
(vaishampAyana continued) Then bAna lived in that city of blood,
governing the land and always agitating all the deva-s.
avatIrya madotsikto bANo bAhusahasravAn |
achintayandevagaNAnyuddhamAkA~NkShate sadA ||2-116-21
bANa with one thousand arms, prompted by his pride, without considering the
deva-s, always desired battle.
dhvajaM chAsya dadau prItaH kumAro hyagnitejasam |
vAhanaM chaiva bANasya mayUraM dIptatejasam ||2-116-22
kumara (skanda) who was pleased with him, gave bANa a flagstaff, having the
splendor of fire and also a splendorous peacock as a vehicle.
na devA na cha gandharvA na yakShA nApi pannagAH |
tasya yuddhe vyatiShThanta devadevasya tejasA ||2-116--23
Neither deva-s, nor gandharva-s, yakSha-s or even serpents were able to
battle with him due to the splendor of the Lord of lords.
tryambakeNAbhiguptashcha darpotsikto mahAsuraH |
bhUyo mR^igayate yuddhaM shUlinaM so.abhyagachChata ||2-116-24
The great demon bANa, protected by the one with three eyes, prompted by
pride, while again looking for battle, came to the one who holds spear
sa rudramabhigamyAtha praNipatyAbhivAdya cha |
balisUnuridaM vAkyaM paprachCha vR^iShabhadhvajam ||2-116-25
Seeing rudra (shiva) he bowed to him and greeted him. The son of bali
(bANa) asked the following to the one who has the bull on his flag (shiva):
asakR^innirjitA devAH sasAdhyAH samarudgaNAH |
mayA madabalotsekAtsasainyena tavAshrayAt ||2-116-26
(bANa said) Depending on you, powered by pride and with the army,
I have conquered the groups of deva-s, sAdhya-s and marut-s.
imaM deshaM samAgamya vasanti sma pure sukham |
Arriving at this place, I am living comfortably in this city.
te parAjayasaMtrastA nirAshA matparAjaye ||2-116-27
nAkapR^iShThamupAgamya nivasanti yathAsukham |
Those who have lost the hope of conquering me, afraid of defeat, have gone
to the backside of heaven and live there comfortably.
so.ahaM nirAsho yuddhasya jIvitaM nAdya kAmaye ||2-116-28
ayuddhyato vR^ithA hyeShAM bAhUnAM dhAraNaM mama |
I have lost hopes of fighting a battle. I do not wish for life. If I do
not fight, having these arms is useless for me.
tadbrUhi mama yuddhasya kachchidAgamanaM bhavet ||2-116-29
Hence tell me: Will there ever be a battle?
na me yuddhaM vinA deva ratirasti prasIda me |
O lord! I do not have any interest without battle. Be pleased with me.
tataH prahasya bhagavAnabravIdR^iShabhadhvajaH ||2-116-30
Then the Lord, the one having bull on his flag (shiva), smiled and said:
bhavitA bANa yuddhaM vai tathA tachChR^iNu dAnava |
bANa! There will be a battle. Hear about it.
dhvajasyAsya yadA bha~Ngastava tAta bhaviShyati |
svasthAne sthApitasyAtha tadA yuddhaM bhaviShyati ||2-116-31
O son! When your flagstaff, installed at its place, is broken, then there
will be a battle.
ityevamuktaH prahasanbANastu bahusho mudA |
prasannavadano bhUtvA pAdayoH patito.abravIt |
Hearing these words spoken thus, bANa was pleased and he smiled. With a
pleased face, he fell on shiva's feet and said:
diShTyA bAhusahasrasya na vR^ithA dhAraNaM mama ||2-116-32
diShTyA sahasrAkShamahaM vijetA punarAhave |
By good fortune, I am not carrying these thousand arms in vain. By good
fortune, I will again conquer the one with thousand eyes (indra) in battle.
AnandenAshrupUrNAbhyAM netrAbhyAmarimardanaH |
pa~nchA~njalishatairdevaM pUjayanpatito bhuvi ||2-116-33
The oppressor of enemies, with his eyes filled with tears of happiness,
worshipped the lord (shiva) with five hundred folded hands and fell on earth.
uttiShThottiShTha bAhUnAmAtmanaH sakulasya tu |
sadR^ishaM prApsyase vIra yuddhamapratimaM mahat ||2-116-34
The Lord (shiva) said:
O valiant! Get up! Get up! You will get an incomparable great battle equal to
the strength of your arms and race.
evamuktastato bANastryambakena mahAtmanA |
harSheNAtyuchChritam shIghraM natvA sa vR^iShabhadhvajam ||2-116-35
When bANa was told thus by the great soul with three eyes (shiva),
he got up quickly with happiness. He bowed to the one having bull on his
shitikaNThavisR^iShTastu bANaH parapura~njayaH |
yayau svabhavanaM tatra yatra dhvajagR^ihaM mahat ||2-116-36
bANa, who was told thus by shitikaNTha (shiva), who conquered the city of
deva-s, returned to his house housing the great flagstaff.
tatropaviShTaH prahasankuMbhANDamidamabravIt |
priyamAvedayiShyAmi bhavato yanmanogatam ||2-116-37
Sitting there, he smiled and told kuMbhANDa thus: I will tell you what is
dear to me in my mind.
ityevamuktaH prahasanbANamaprAtimaM raNe |
provAcha rAja~NkiM vaitadvaktukAmo.asi matpriyam || 2-116-38
Hearing this, he smiled and told bANa, who has no equal in battle: O king!
What is it that you are going to tell me which is dear to me?
vismayotphullanayanaH praharShAdiva bhAShase |
tvattaH shrotumihechChAmi varaM kiM labdhavAnasi ||2-116-39
You are speaking with happiness, with your eyes fully opened with wonder.
I wish to hear what boon you received.
shitikaNThaprasAdena skandagopAyanena cha |
kachchittrailokyarAjyaM te vyAdiShTaM shUlapANinA ||2-116-40
By the pleasure of shitikaNTha (shiva) and the protection of skanda, did
the one holding spear give you the control of all the three worlds?
asya chakrabhayatrastA nivasanti jalAshaye |
kachchichChAr~NgagadApAneH sthitasya paramAhave ||2-116-41
Will those who live in water, due to the fear of the chakra of the one who
holds shAr~Nga and mace (kR^iShNa) dare to enter the battle?
kachchidindrastava bhayAtpAtAlamupayAsyati |
kachchidviShNuparitrAsaM vimokShyanti diteH sutAH ||2-116-42
Will indra go to pAtAla, afraid of you? Will the sons of diti become free
of the fear of viShNu?
pAtAlavAsamutsR^ijya kachchittava balAshrayAt |
vibudhAvAsaniratA bhaviShyanti mahAsurAH ||2-116-43
Depending on power, will the great demons leave their residence in regions
under the earth (patAla) and start living where the devas live?
balirviShNuparAkrAnto baddhastava pitA nR^ipa |
salilaughAdviniShkramya kachchidrAjyamavApsyati ||2-116-44
O king! Will your father bali, defeated by viShNu's valiance and tied by him,
leave the ocean and again rule the land?
divyamAlyAmbaradharaM divyasraggandhalepanam |
kachchidvairochaniM tAta drakShyAmaH pitaraM tava ||2-116-45
Will we be able to see your father, bali, the son of virochana, wearing
divine garlands, his body smeared with divine pastes?
kachchittribhiH kramaiH pUrvaM hR^itA.NllokAnimAnprabho |
punaH pratyAnayiShyAmo jitvA sarvAndivaukasaH ||2-116-46
O lord! Will we ever regain this entire world , which was taken away before
with three steps, by conquering all the deva-s?
snigdhagambhIranirghoShaM sha~Nkhasvanapurojavam |
kachchinnArAyaNaM devaM jeShyAmaH samiti~njayam ||2-116-47
Will we conquer the lord nArAyaNa who has a grand deep voice, who is
heralded by the sound of conch and who wins the battles?
kachchidvR^iShadhvajastAta prasAdasumukhastava |
yathA te hR^idayotkampaH sAshrubinduH pravartate ||2-116-48
O sir! Was the one having bull on his flag pleased with you? Your heart is
beating and you have tears of happiness.
kachchidIshvaratoSheNa kArtikeyamatena cha |
prAptavAnasi sarveShAmasmAkaM rAjyasampadam ||2-116-49
By the pleasure of the Lord (shiva) and the will of kArtikeya, did you get
all the land and wealth for all us?
iti kumbhANDavachanaishchoditaH so.asurottamaH |
bANo vANImasaMsaktAM provAcha vadatAM varaH ||2-116-50
bANa, the best among demons, the best among speakers, prompted by the words
spoken thus by kumbhANDa, spoke the following words without any obstacle.
chirAtprabhR^iti kumbhANDa na yuddhaM prApyate mayA |
tato mayA mudA pR^iShTaH shitikaNThaH pratApavAn ||2-116-51
O kumbhANDa! I did not get any opportunity for battle for a long time. Hence
I asked the splendorous shitikaNTha (shiva) happily:
yuddhAbhilAShaH sumahAndeva sa~njAyate mama |
abhiprApsyAmyahaM yuddhaM manasastuShTivardhanam ||2-116-52
I have a great wish in my mind to have a battle. How can I get a battle which
increases the happiness of my mind?
tato.ahaM devadevena hareNAmitraghAtinA |
prahasya suchiraM kAlamukto.asmi vachanaM priyam |
Then the Lord of lords, hara, the slayer of enemies, laughed for a long time
and told me the following dear words:
prApsyase sumahadyuddhaM tvaM bANApratimaM mahat ||2-116-53
O bANa! you will attain a great battle which will be unequal.
mayUradhvajabha~Ngaste bhaviShyati yadAsura |
tadA tvaM prApsyase yuddhaM sumahadditinandana ||2-116-54
O asura! O the son of diti! When your peacock flagstaff breaks, then you
will attain a great battle.
tato.ahaM paramaprIto bhagavantaM vR^iShadhvajam |
praNamya shirasA devaM tavAntikamupAgataH ||2-116-55
Then I was pleased and I thanked the Lord, the one with bull on his flag.
Bowing to the Lord with my head, I returned to your side.
ityevamuktaH kumbhANDaH provAcha nR^ipatiM tadA |
aho na shobhanaM rAjanyadevaM bhAShase vachaH ||2-116-56
kumbhANDa who was told thus, spoke to the king (bANa): Alas! O king! The
words spoken by you are not auspicious.
evaM kathayatostatra tayoranyonyamuchChritaH |
dhvajaH papAta vegena shakrAshanisamAhataH ||2-116-57
While they were conversing with each other like this, the high flagstaff,
fell down, broken by the thunder of indra.
taM tathA patitaM dR^iShTvA so.asuro dhvajamuttamam |
praharShamatulaM lebhe mene chAhavamAgatam ||2-116-58
Seeing the best among flagstaffs, broken and fallen down, the asura became
most happy thinking that the battle has come.
tatashchakampe vasudhA shakrAshanisamAhatA |
nanAdAntarhito bhUmau vR^iShadaMsho jagarja cha ||2-116-59
Struck by indra's thunder, the earth trembled. Hiding inside earth, the cat
devAnAmapi yo devaH so.apyavarShata vAsavaH |
shoNitaM shoNitapure sarvataH paramaM tataH ||2-116-60
Then, vAsava (indra), the god of gods, showered blood all over the city of
sUryaM bhittvA maholkA cha papAta dharaNItale |
svapakShe choditaH sUryo bharaNIM samapIDayat ||2-116-61
Splitting the sun, a great meteor fell on the surface of earth. The sun was
prompted to oppress bharaNi, who was on his side.
chaityavR^ikSheShu sahasA dhArAH shatasahasrashaH |
shoNitasya sravanghorA nipetustArakA bhR^isham ||2-116-62
Suddenly, there appeared hundreds of thousands of terrible blood streams
on chaitya trees. The stars fell down.
rAhuragrasadAdityamaparvaNi vishAMpate |
lokakShayakare kAle nighAtashchApatanmahAn ||2-116-63
O the lord of earth! (king janamejaya! vaishampAyana continued) The sun was
affected by rAhu, out of turn. There was great thunder like at the time of
the decline of the world.
dakShiNAM dishamAsthAya dhUmaketuH sthito.abhavat |
anishaM chApyavichChinnA vavurvAtAH sudAruNAH ||2-116-64
A shooting star was seen in the southern direction. Terrible winds blew there
always without any break.
shvetalohitaparyantaH kR^iShNagrIvastaDiddyutiH |
trivarNaparigho bhAnuH sandhyArAgamathAvR^iNot ||2-116-65
White and red from top to bottom, with a black neck and sparkling like
lightning, a three coloured envelope surrounded the sun in the evening
vakrama~NgArakashchakre kR^ittikAsu bhaya~NkaraH |
bANasya janmanakShatraM bhartsayanniva sarvashaH ||2-116-66
The terrible mars entered the bent kR^ittika, the birth star of bANa,
insulting it all around.
anekashAkhashchaityashcha nipapAta mahItale |
The chaitya tree having multiple branches, worshipped all over by the best
asura girls fell on the surface of earth.
architaH sarvakanyAbhirdAnavAnAM mahAtmanAm ||2-116-67
evaM vividharUpANi nimittAni nishAmayan |
bANo balamadonmatto nishchayaM nAdhigachChati ||2-116-68
Thus, bANa who became confused due to power, saw various forms of omen which
he definitely did not consider.
vichetAstvabhavatprAj~naH kuMbhANDastattvadarshivAn |
bANasya sachivastatra kIrtayanbahu kilbiSham ||2-116-69
bANa's minister kumbhANDa, having great intellect, who understood the
meanings of the omens, spoke about many defects.
utpAtA hyatra dR^ishyante kathayanto na shobhanam |
tava rAjyavinAshAya bhaviShyanti na saMshayaH ||2-116-70
Many omens are seen which are inauspicious. These indicate that your land
will perish. There is no doubt.
vayaM chAnye cha sachivA bhR^ityA te cha tavAnugAH |
kShayaM yAsyanti na chirAtsarve pArthivadurnayAt ||2-116-71
Due to the bad conduct of the king, all of us, ministers, servants and your
followers will perish without any delay.
yathA shakradhvajataroH svadarpAtpatanaM bhavet |
balamAkA~NkShato mohAttathA bANasya nardataH ||2-116-72
As the tree supporting the flagstaff of indra fell due to the false pride
of the king, the one who wishes to have power will perish, as bANa shouts.
devadevaprasAdAttu trailokyavijayaM gataH |
utsekAddR^ishyate nAsho yuddhAkA~NkShI nanarda ha ||2-116-73
Due to the pleasure of the Lord of lords, bANa could achieve victory over
the three worlds. bANa who wants to battle, shouts. Due to his pride,
the disaster is seen.
bANaH prItamanAstvevaM papau pAnamanuttamam |
daityadAnavanArIbhiH sArdhamuttamavikramaH ||2-116-74
(vaishampAyana continued: O janamejaya!) bANa with a pleased mind, had a
best drink. The best among valiants, bANa celebrated along with daityas,
demons and women.
kuMbhANDashchintayAviShTo rAjaveshmAbhyayAttadA |
achintayachcha tattvArthaM taistairutpAatadarshanaiH ||2-116-75
kumbhANDa, immersed in thoughts, went to the king's house. Seeing the omens,
he thought about their meanings.
rAjA pramAdI durbiddhirjitakAshI mahAsuraH |
yuddhamevAbhilaShate na doShAnmanyate madAt ||2-116-76
The great demon king (bANa) does wrong things, his intellect is bad, he is
proud of victory. He longs for battle only. Due to his pride, he does not
see the defects.
mahotpAtabhayaM chaiva na tanmithyA bhaviShyati |
apIdAnIM bhavenmithyA sarvamutpAtadarshanam ||2-116-77
The fear of the omens will not become unreal. Will all the omens seen now
iha tvAste trinayanaH kArtikeyashcha vIryavAn |
tenotpanno.api doSho naH kachchidgachChetparAbhavam ||2-116-78
The one with three eyes (shiva) as well as the valiant kArtikeya are here.
Because of this will those defects become non-existent for us?
utpannadoShaprabhavaH kShayo.ayaM bhavitA mahAn |
doShANAM na bhavennAsha iti me dhIyate matiH ||2-116-79
This decline will become great because of the power of these defects. These
defects will not perish. This is what my mind understands.
niyato doSha evAyaM bhaviShyati na saMshayaH |
daurAtmyAnnR^ipaterasya doShabhUtA hi dAnavAH ||2-116-80
These defects will definitely occur. There is no doubt. Because of the king
having bad soul, the demons got defects.
devadAnavasa~NghAnAM yaH kartA bhuvanaprabhuH |
bhagavAnkArtikeyashcha kR^itavA.Nllohite pure ||2-116-81
The lord of the world, lord kArtikeya who directs the groups of gods and
demons also resides in the city of blood.
prANaiH priyataro nityaM bhaviShyati guhaH sadA |
tadvishiShTashcha bANo.api shivasya satataM priyaH ||2-116-82
guha (kArtikeya) is always dearer than life for shiva. bANa is always
dearer and specially dearer than him to shiva.
darpotsekAttu nAshAya varaM yAchitavAnbhavam |
yuddhahetoH sa lubdhastu sarvathA na bhaviShyati ||2-116-83
Due to his pride, he asked for a boon of battle from shiva for his own
destruction. The miser will face destruction all around.
yadi viShNupurogAnAmindrAdInAM divaukasAm |
bhavitrI hyabhavatprAptirbhavahastAtkR^itaM bhavet ||2-116-84
If deva-s like indra led by viShNu, the residents of heaven, come here,
shiva's hand will be definitely of help.
etayoshcha hi ko yuddhaM kumArabhavayoriha |
shakto dAtuM samAgamya bANasAhAyyakA~NkShiNoH ||2-116-85
Which person will be able to have a battle with bANa, who is assisted by
kumAra (subrahmaNya) and bhava (shiva) here?
na cha devavacho mithyA bhaviShyati kadAchana |
bhaviShyati mahadyuddhaM sarvadaityavinAshanam ||2-116-86
The words of the Lord (shiva) will never be unreal. There will be a great
battle leading to the destruction of all demons.
sa evaM chintayAviShTaH kuMbhANDastattvadarshivAn |
svastipraNihitAM buddhiM chakAra sa mahAsuraH ||2-116-87
kumbhANDa who understands the meanings thought in this manner. The great
asura kumbhANDa had an intellect leading to the good.
ye hi devairviruddhyante puNyakarmabhirAhave |
yathA balirniyamitastathA te yAnti sa~NkShayam ||2-116-88
Those who hate the deva-s who perform good deeds will suffer destruction
like bali who was tied up.
iti shrImahAbhArate khileShu harivaMshe viShNuparvaNi
Thus this is the one hundred and sixteenth lesson of viShNuparva, harivaMsha,
khila of mahAbhArata, story of bAnAsura.
## Itranslated by K S Ramachandran, ramachandran_ksr @ yahoo.ca
January 30, 2009
Further proof-read by Gilles Schaufelberger, schaufel @ wanadoo.fr
If you find any errors compared to Chitrashala Press edition,
send corrections to A. Harindranath, harindranath_a @ yahoo.com
Translated to English by A. Purushothaman [purushothaman_avaroth @
yahoo.com] and A. Harindranath