Bharathan - A Novel By Kovilan

Translated from Malayalam by A. Purushothaman

Bharathan - Notes

Chapter One

1.
IIT (Indian Institute of Technology) operates a bus service between the campus and the city.
2.
Owners of south Indian vegetarian hotels are commonly referred to as Ambi. Traditionally they are Brahmins from Kerala/Tamil Nadu.
3.
A temporary structure constructed on the footpath. Food is served at very cheap rates.
4.
Devout Hindus chant the name of Rama and Krishna. This is a four line stanza invoking Lord Vishnu.
5.
The moon on the fifth day of the lunar cycle - crescent shaped.
6.
Ennittum Koran kumbililttanne kanji kutikkunnu - A popular saying in Malayalam which means the poor man's lot remains the same in spite of any progress in society.
7.
A preparation of rice.
8.
Acchan oru pura paniyikkumpool kutti unnippura kuutti divasena kalyaanamaaghooshikkunnu - A popular saying in Malayalam - children imitate their parents.
Chapter Two
1.
Bharathan is staying in a garage (meant for parking vehicle) with a rolling shutter.
2.
Place for workouts.
3.
According to Hindu mythology, Bhageerathan, the grandson of king Sagara, did penance and brought the heavenly river Ganges to the earth.
4.
Kanpur is on the banks of river Ganges.
Chapter Three
1.
A proverb in Malayalam - one has to face the consequences of one's action.
2.
Bharatha - son of Sakuntala and Dushyanta. Story from Mahabharata.
3.
Sakuntala was daughter of Menaka and Viswamitra. Story from Mahabharata.
4.
Form of Lord Shiva in which male and female forms are accorded equal importance.
5.
Purusha - male form and Shakti - female form.
6.
Son of Shajahan - Mughal Dynasty.
7.
Brothers of Aurangazeb, killed by him.
8.
Maratha leader who broke away and challenged the authority of Aurangazeb.
9.
A book compiled by Manu listing do's and don'ts.
10.
Bhagavad Gita, part of Mahabharata.
11.
According to Hindu custom, a person about to die should be administered water and flower, to have a proper death.
12.
Doesn't know how to read and write.
13.
Lencas Indica - a medicinal plant.
14.
Book used by students of primary classes to learn and improve handwriting.
15.
Mountain pass at the border of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
16.
Sri Lanka.
17.
Columbo, capital of Sri Lanka.
18.
Very Good.
19.
United States of America.
20.
Mark of a married woman.
Chapter Four
1.
Script of Hindi.
2.
According to Hindu mythology, Aruna, son of Vinata, was born deformed and became the dawn that brings in the sun (Mahabharata).
3.
Brother - common form of addressing.
4.
Where are you going.
5.
Are you blind.
6.
Story of Ramayana, where Rama wanders through forest in search of Sita, who was abducted by the demon Ravana.
7.
Wife of landlord.
8.
Sweets.
9.
Ramayan, written in Hindi by Thulsidas.
Chapter Five
1.
Mother.
2.
An unknown traveller.
3.
Building.
4.
420. The reference here is to the Indian Penal Code number 420, which was extensively used by Britishers to arrest people on any filmsy ground. In north India, Hindi heartland, 420 refers to deceit and cheating.
5.
Why did you take so much trouble?
6.
Stop/Halt.
7.
Stop, stop and go.
8.
Sickman from somewhere.
Chapter Six
1.
Bhagawat Gita.
2.
Compilation of do's and don'ts.
3.
Religious Book of Muslims.
4.
A colloquial form of pretending innocence.
5.
Who are you.
6.
Vinoba Bhave - a disciple of Gandhi.
7.
Halt, who is is coming.
8.
Turned about (returned).
9.
Celestial musicians, being men reborn to the sensual pleasures of the lower heavens.
10.
Lady who burns herself in her husband's funeral pyre.
11.
Sita followed her husband Rama to forest (Ramayana).
12.
Savithri retrieved her husband from Death due to her faithfulness (Mahabharata).
Chapter Seven
1.
Don't move.
2.
Look to the front.
3.
National Cadet Corps - student wing of the armed forces.
4.
About turn.
5.
Usually vegetarian hotels in South India are owned and managed by Brahmins.
6.
Place of pilgrimage - temple of Lord Ayyappa.
7.
Place of pilgrimage - temple of Lord Shiva.
8.
Place of pilgrimage - temple of Lord Vishnu.
9.
The deity of the village. The oracle wears a red dress and visits all houses.
10.
The oracle, representing the deity carries an ornamental sword strikes his head with the sword.
11.
Name of a stream.
12.
Name of a stream.
13.
The stream formed by joining Vachal and Ponnam Thodu.
14.
A practice of dispersing the physical remains (after cremation) all over the water bodies.
15.
Stand at ease.